Mak electric trike. Mak electric trike

Mak electric trike

The specificity of 3D printing continues to work wonders, this time in bringing an eco-friendly electric tricycle to life.

3D printed to perfection © Credit to EOOS

Shipping is costly, and most don’t realise it, and we’re not talking about how much you pay to have something shipped either. We’re talking about the fossil fuels burned to have something sent to your door.

This is where Austrian studio EOOS steps in, or rather, EOOS NEXT, the companies design wing.

EOOS NEXT has developed a prototype that it calls a “zero-emissions utility vehicle” (ZUV) that you simply 3D print locally and put together yourself.

Like Lego, only practical in a real-world setting.

“We wanted to design around local, affordable production,” said EOOS founder Harald Gründl when talking to Dezeen.

The ZUV was actually commissioned for MAK’s Climate Care Exhibition, which happens to be a part of the Vienna Biennale for Change.

Build It Anywhere With The Right Printer

The ZUV was created in collaboration alongside additive manufacturing company The New Raw. As is the case with most electric personal transport, the three-wheeler is powered via a rear-wheel hub motor.

In other words, you won’t find pedals or a bike chain on what could easily be mistaken as sentient Ikea furniture.

“Because of the high labour costs in Europe, almost every bike frame is produced in Asia. But we want a local ZUV production facility in every city around the world.” — Harald Gründl, founder of EOOS

Its simplified design is a purposeful one. Gründl envisioned a local economic cycle of sorts, allowing anyone with access to a decent 3D printer to produce the polypropylene chassis.

The eye of the ZUV © Credit to EOOS

Once printed, all the rider would need to do at that point is take the parts to a bike workshop, piece it all together, strap on a motor, and cycle off into the sunset.

It Lives, It Dies, It Lives Again

The ability to 3D print certain parts only adds to the lifespan of the ZUV. It also gives EOOS the ability to provide upgrades if they so choose.

over, you don’t need to ship these parts (yes, you’ll need access to a 3D printer capable of making one, but still).

But what happens to the parts the ZUV sheds?

Easy, they get recycled/shredded, ready to be used again — perhaps, to build the same part.

“What we envision is a circular economy of mobility,” Gründ explained. “Service schemes with a designed ‘take back’ will be the future. And it’s way easier to close the loop if you do it locally rather than sending around ships full of waste as we do today, which is stupid.”

electric, trike

Tech Spec Of The ZUV Revealed

It’s compact, but it has the power to carry two fully-grown adults on its back — in addition to two children/cargo in the transport box located at the front.

Weight-wise, the ZUV is only 100 kilograms which might surprise some of you reading this (it surprised us).

Haul everything (within reason) © Credit to EOOS

As an electric trike, it’s capable of hauling pretty heavy items over short distances.

Could the ZUV replace a car in time? Gründl certainly thinks so:

“A car has maybe 800 kilogrammes of battery while a bicycle has eight and it does the job for many of the journeys that we want to make in a city.”

Like the Swytch Kit, EOOS NEXT has taken a simple concept and turned it into reality. What do you think of the ZUV? And could it replace a car as far as cargo/shopping trips go?

Tony loves branding, and studying emerging brands. On top of that, he’s a bit of a nerd when it comes to boys toys. Scalectrix, toys, collectables. Aside from running content for E4TP, he also runs a branding agency. When he’s not doing that, he’s writing, reading, and learning about branding and SEO, spending time with his family, or watching wrestling.

This electric scooter folds down to half the size of a conventional kick scooter for easy city transportation!

Smacircle is a redesign of the electric kick scooter that folds down to half the size of a traditional kick scooter for easy transport and seamless maneuverability.

Getting around crowded cities always feels harder than it should be. Even if you live in a driving city like Los Angeles, finding parking is near impossible and then there’s the walk from your parking space to your destination. In New York City, you always have to add in the time it takes to actually walk to and from the subway station. In walking cities, the sidewalks just get too packed. Introducing a new way of getting around the city, designer Rice Mak conceptualized Smacircle, an electric scooter that folds down to half the size of a traditional scooter so you’ll always have a ride as you make your way through the city.

According to Mak, Smacircle solves the “last kilometer” problem of most crowded cities. While subways cover the majority of urban areas, the distance between each stop is at least one to two kilometers, which means your destination is likely one to two kilometers away from each subway stop. Smacircle is an electric scooter that can fold down to a size you’ll feel comfortable with bringing onto the subway and then once you’re out, you can zoom in the bike lane for your destination.

Featuring an integrated motor in its vertical support bar, Smacircle folds in three places to become one-third of its operating size. Unfolded, Smacircle reaches the same height and width as a conventional kick scooter, but has an advantage over the latter for its compact folded size, dropping down to half the size of a traditional folded kick scooter.

Edging out the conventional scooter further, Smacircle comes with built-in shock absorbers that work to maintain the scooter’s small, but mighty build, enhancing its overall maneuverability. In the center of the scooter’s handlebar, just above the motor, Mak incorporated a digital display panel where users would be able to read the scooter’s battery life, speed, and mileage. Equipping Smacircle with everything a city rider might need for their commute, located on the same display panel, users can access the scooter’s high beams and USB socket.

Smacircle comes with a small kickstand to remain in place when at a halt.

Smacircle folds down to half the size of a traditional folded kick scooter.

With a narrow build, Smacircle is easy to carry at your side too.

The digital display gadget reveals all the technical information necessary for a smooth ride.

The scooter’s hinged parts lock into place when unfolded.

Built with integrated shock absorbers, Smacircle ensures a swift ride.

Become a pro gamer and a street photographer with this ergonomic universal game controller!

If you are still caught between the Playstation and Xbox gaming console dilemma, I say drop them both and get this innovative device that turns your phone into a console instead! The BETOP G-2 is a portable universal game controller for your smartphone and that means you can play anytime, anywhere without wasting your time setting up your console or getting into the PS vs Xbox wars on the internet.

The BETOP G-2 was created by award-winning designer Rice Mak to make the joy of gaming accessible by optimizing your phone. Not only does it reduce cost but it also saves space. Yes, the experience of playing on your phone vs on the TV may not be the same but having your game in your is a lot better than having to be home to play. The controller is ergonomically designed to encase your phone and be comfortable for you to play. It also doubles up as a steady grip for you to practice photography using just one hand – something that makes it unique when compared to other mobile controllers!

Its rounded square shape is compact and splits open into two parts that clip onto either side of your phone. There are two tactile controller buttons and the L1 L2 ones on the left while the right top side features the R Capture buttons. I bet you would love the fact that your phone can continue to charge while you have this console on so you don’t have to choose between your battery or your progress! The minimal black aesthetic suits every phone and the layout has been designed in a way that it is intuitive to use whether you are an avid player or just starting to have fun. The BETOP G-2 is versatile, portable, modular, and a whole lot of fun!

Designer: Rice Mak of Husky Design

Your robotic caddie!

Like the idea of a golf caddie but don’t enjoy relying on another human to carry your prized possessions around for you? Then DUCK (Axglo X-E) may just be the product for you! Packed into this electric caddie is an all-intelligent following system that accurately navigates the terrain whilst maintaining a consistent distance away from you. The 80,000 mAh battery provides the nifty device with enough energy for 25km of roaming; adequate range for even the largest of courses!

Something which DUCK can do that you cannot do with the human variant, is fold it up and place it neatly in the boot of your car. DUCK automatically reduces in size to create a storage-friendly package that is far more convenient to transport. This high level of practically continues with the myriad or storage s and compartments that make-up the multi-functional console; leading to a product that can carry far more than just your clubs!

The Axglo has 3 modes. In following mode, the handlebar does not need to be pulled up, which enhances the experience and formally change the concept of “pull”. Certainly, if golf cart runs out of electricity, people can still use it in pulling mode. When it is converted into the storage mode, multiple transmission structures can cooperate to fold quickly.

The Axglo is designed in a way where the golf bag is facing the golfer automatically. This can give the golfer the ability to quickly and easily access their desire club to make the perfect shot, hence get rid of the inconvenience to get the club from traidtional cart.

Above: Traditional Electric Cart. Below: Axglo

The Axglo can easily climb a slope of over 45 degrees. Without the use of auxiliary wheel, it improves the problem of losing balance by maxmizing the length of the front and rear wheelbase. The most important thing is that the folding size is smaller than other folding electric golf carts in the existing market.

Like Father, Like Son

Growing up, boys will try and be like their fathers, from emulating the way they walk, through to copying how they sit… and now they can even ride the same bicycles! This eye-catching duo is the Banana 88 bicycles, and whilst almost-identical in form, their function and scale are most certainly different! Naturally, the larger of the two is targeted towards adults; packed into the attention-stealing, yet the friendly, design is an electric motor that propels the user around in an eerily-silent fashion. When it comes to transporting or storing the scooter, its unique form folds up into a compact package, making it ideal for being placed in the car!

The second member of the pair is significantly smaller and does away with the electric motor. Instead, this variant is a balance bike aimed to introduce children into the world of bicycles! The rounded, approachable form makes for a friendly product, and one which ties the two products together, perfectly!

Balance Bike for Kids

Working Prototype

This article was sent to us using the ‘Submit A Design’ feature. We encourage designers/students/studios to send in their projects to be featured on Yanko Design!

Why carry your suitcase when your suitcase could carry you?

Admitted it’ll take a while for ‘riding suitcases’ to become a norm of sorts, but the Quadra is ideal for people who can’t lug their luggage around with them. Whether it’s a traveler with fatigue, a flyer who’s running late for a flight, or perhaps the noblest scenario, an elderly traveler or a traveler with special needs, the Quadra could be just the thing to help you and your luggage get from point A to B.

The Quadra, instead of being dragged or pulled, ends up driving you around the place. A step up from those self-driving suitcases we saw at CES last year, the Quadra fits an entire e-scooter into the suitcase, allowing you to pull it around when you want, and letting you drive it down airport lobbies.

The design of the Quadra packs a foldable handlebar, two wheels, and even a pair of leg-rests into it. One side of the suitcase ends up becoming your seat, and the entire suitcase effectively turns into a scooter that runs on an internal battery. Given that carrying batteries or power-banks in your check-in luggage is a big no-no, the Quadra is designed to be compact enough to serve as cabin luggage. Given that the wheels fold into the Quadra’s form, it would mean compromising slightly on storage space, but the Quadra still packs enough for a side-bag. Besides, let’s not discount the fact that it’s also the only side-bag that can drive you around the airport and spare you the fatigue brought about by constantly having to wheel luggage around with you as you walk from terminal to terminal.

Designers: Kinson Chan Rice Mak

A Healthy Cat, Is a Happy Cat

Monitoring every aspect of our pet’s health is no easy feat… just keeping up with our four-legged friends can be a challenge in itself! However, you can tell a lot about a cat’s health from their intake of water, as changes in this can be warning signs for certain diseases. Existing water bowls may bring with them a series of additional health risks, such as scale deposition and hair sediment accumulation.

These problems have been eradicated with the rather ingenious TailTalk water dispenser! The built-in water purification system allows for the continues flow and circulation of water, eliminating water scale build-up, whilst four layers of filter remove any large particles from the water. All of this occurs whilst the Intelligent Water Quantity Monitoring System simultaneously tracks the intake of water; a gravity sensor that’s housed within the base of the device monitors the water volume, which is then clearly displayed on the side of the product!

A Scooter for us Big-Kids!

It’s likely that you will associate the word ‘scooter’ with your childhood, where hours were spent gliding around on the two-wheeled contraptions. But, why should kids have all the fun? Qui is a redesigned electric scooter that has been designed with the desire to alter how the scooter’ feels in the public mind’.

At first glance you will see how this is far from the simple scooter that you may have grown up with; Qui carriers a sleek yet muscular design that is packed full of intuitive design features. Perhaps most unique is the special fork design that adds an element of visual intrigue due to the surreal, floating visual that it creates.

There is no forgetting that this is propelled by an electric motor. Visual hints in the form of bright blue flashes of light constantly remind you of the powertrain, which is controlled by the series of buttons that are mounted on the handlebars.

“The special design of the front fork makes the whole scooter neat and more refreshing, but it does not affect the steering function at all,” Mak told YD.

The Power Bank with Attitude!

We have seen a vast number of portable power bank concepts over this past year, but the playfulness and overall incredible detail of this one stole our attention. Meet Ninja. K, the power bank with attitude!

The design incorporates a range of elements that are commonly associated with Ninjas, from trademark weapons through to the distinctive mask, it encapsulates these into the form of the ever-convenient power bank!

The menacing and intimidating looks of a Ninja have been wonderfully captured on the front façade of the product; sitting in place of where the murderous eyes would normally be positioned, is the percentage of the power left in the battery; this is a clever way of allowing the function to enhance the design!

Trike Meets Tote

Just like the name suggests, the TAKEME trike aims to tag along with its user everywhere they go. Designed with the elderly in mind, it features a thoughtfully designed folding system that allows it to transition between riding, carrying, and storing modes in mere seconds. Functioning as both an e-tricycle and cart, the different modes accommodate a variety of activities including last-mile commuting, shopping, and more. In addition to having a triple-wheel design that provides enhanced stability and safety, its automated folding system creates a seamless rider/transporter experience that elderly users will appreciate.

Designers: Kinson Chan, Ronsben Huen Rice Mak


The GMAC hub motor is a collaboration between Grin and MAC motors to produce a unique hub motor in the electric bike space: a geared motor with powerful regenerative braking, integrated no-play torque arm, and near perfect bike frame compatibility. We started this co-development in earnest in late 2017 along with Bike Swift and after much testing and refinement are happy to introduce this hub in our 2019 motor catalogue.

What’s Special?

The core motor performance is the same as you would expect from the latest MAC motors. That includes a modern cassette freehub system instead of a screw on freewheel and a powerful 20mm wide stator core made with thin 0.35mm laminations, but the following differences make it really stand out

Locked Clutch:

It’s been the norm that geared hub motors have a built in freewheeling clutch so that the motor coasts in the forwards direction with no drag, but this prevents regenerative braking, reverse operation, and the clutch itself becomes a common point of failure with high torque motors. The GMAC motor does away with the freewheeling clutch entirely, allowing powerful and efficienct regenerative braking and one less component to fail.

Integrated Splined Torque Arm:

A powerful motor requires a strong torque arm, and a powerful motor with regenerative braking requires no play between forwards and reverse torque. We designed a splined torque arm interface inside the dropout which provides several times the spinout strength of the conventional axle flat approach, with a snug fit for handling torque reversals without any slop.

10mm Round Axles:

By placing the integrated torque arm inside the dropout slot, the remaining axle could be made to match the standard round M10 x 1.0 convention of bicycle hubs. This allows the motor axle to seat fully into a bicycle dropout slot with correct positioning of the disk rotor and cassette cluster, unlike M14 axles which locate the centerpoint about 3-4mm too low.

Side Cable Exit:

In conventional MAC motors the cable comes out the end of the axle, leaving it vulneratble to damage in accidents and complicating the installation and exchanging of axle hardware. Our design of the splined torque arms allows for a side cable exit that bends downwards out of the dropout slot, nicely shielding the cable exit from mechanical damage in any mishaps.

L10 Connector:

Finally, we’ve had these motor cables terminated with the 10 pin high current locking motor connector which integrates the hall wires, temperature sensor, internal speedometer sensor, and phase leads into a single reliable and water tight plug. The motor phase wire is heavy 4mm^2 copper (larger than 12 gauge) and capable of handling 100A currents for short times.

Applications and Uses

The primary use case for this motor was for heavy hauling applications and people riding on steep hills. These are scenarios where the motor is in use almost all the time, and the lack of freewheeling is not an issue since the rider is rarely pedaling the bike unassisted. Traditionally this application involved a toss-up between choosing powerful geared hub motors or mid-drives for good efficiency at low speeds and high torques, and giving up on regenerative braking, or using a large and heavy direct drive motor for regen but at the expense of reduced efficiency on the slow climbs.

The GMAC motor eliminates this trade-off, providing a relatively light motor option that has good low speed torque and efficiency plus regenerative braking that is nothing short of amazing. In cargo applications where riders will be frequently burning through brake pads, this hub is a game changer for reducing system maintenance and improving vehicle handling.

The GMAC motor without a clutch has a no-load drag that varies from 1.0- 1.5 Nm with sheel speed, which is more than a typical direct drive hub motor (0.6-1.0 Nm). For most riders this would be a detectable amount of extra resistance when pedaling the bike, and it’s one of the reasons that geared hub motors have all tended to have a freewheel built in.

However, even if you are pedaling the bike without assist, the energy that is expended overcoming this rolling drag will typically be less the energy recaptured from regenerative braking, as we’ve been explaining for well over a decade. This means that the motor can be run all the time at low powers to overcome the rolling drag and feel like it is freewheeling, while using less total battery energy compared to having an actual freewheel and no regen. This electronic freewheeling function is available in the Phaserunner and Baserunner controller series and can be activated via the V1.1 and later software suites. For an example of this in action see this video here.

With this feature avaialble we can confidently say that the GMAC motor is a great choice even for commuter and touring applications where a freewheeling hub is considered vital for many people, since as long as there’s a battery on the bike it can be made to feel just like a freewheeling setup.

Winding Speeds

We stock the GMAC motor in two winding speed options which should cover all bases; a standard 10T wind (8.1 rpm/V), and a fast 8T wind (10.2 rpm.V). In general the standard wind is mostly used by 26 and larger wheels while the faster wind is for smaller 20 wheel sizes, but it is perfectly fine to choose lace any winding in any wheel size depending on your desired speed for a given battery votlage. The fast winding option is great for those who want a peppy system while sticking with the common 36V battery packs.

We do not carry MAC’s slow 12T motor winding as it provides no performance advantage given the large size phase wires available; you can get just as much continous torque out of the 8 and 10 turn windings. At the other end, full torque output from the very fast 6T motor requires more phase current than the Phasernuner can supply on a continuous basis.

Motor Power

Like all electric motors, the power output capability of the GMAC depend on the RPM at which the motor is being run, the amount of air cooling available, and the ambient temperature. The table below shows the expected power capabilities assuming room temperature atmosphere and a passing airflow consistent with the wheel being laced in a 26 wheel. The continuous rating is the power that will result in a steady state motor core of 110 oC, while the 5 minute rating is the power level it can sustain for 5 minutes starting from 60oC before the core reaches 110 Celsius.

Output Power Capability of GMAC to 110oC Core Temp

Wheel Speed Continuous Power 5 Minute Power
100 RPM 250 W 670 W
200 RPM 500 W 1300 W
300 RPM 800 W 2000 W
400 RPM 1000 W 2600 W

For a more detailed understanding we recommend using our motor simulator or trip simulator applications to properly predict the capability of this motor in any specific usage scenario.

Replacement Electric Bike Batteries Guide

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A good e-bike battery should last for hundreds of cycles. With average use, this means several years. Eventually, electric bike batteries need to be replaced as their life cycle comes to an end.

You can tell when a battery is nearing the end of its life when it does not provide you with much range. Some high-quality batteries that come on the top e-bikes such as a Bosch battery have a battery management system (BMS) integrated into the battery that actually tells you the current capacity and also how many charge cycles it has gone through.

But no matter what type of battery you have you’ll sooner or later be asking yourself the all-important question: how can I replace my e-bike battery?

Down below Electric Bike Report dives into this question and more in greater detail.

Are E-bike Batteries Interchangeable?

In general, the answer is no – you should only replace a battery with one that comes from the same manufacturer and is of exactly the same spec.

The reason is that the original e-bike or kit manufacturer has the responsibility to ensure that the battery pack, charger, and e-bike all work safely together, and using a ‘non-original’ replacement pack potentially introduces all sorts of uncontrolled risks.

It’s a little more complicated than this in some situations. For example, some Bosch batteries of different capacities are explicitly made to be interchangeable and there will be many instances where an original supplier and/or manufacturer of the e-bike cannot be traced or has gone out of business – in such cases we look at your options below.

electric, trike

As an important side note: you should always, if possible, use a charger that comes from the original manufacturer too. The one that comes with your battery should sync up well and not overload the battery. Pairing your battery with a different charger adds in risk of malfunction during charging.

Let’s first look at the basics of getting a replacement battery for your e-bike, then we will look at some of the major manufacturers of e-bike batteries and some of the main e-bike manufacturers to see which common battery types are still replaceable. Let’s consider the options for replacement in terms of desirability.

Where Should I Go to Get a Replacement E-Bike Battery?

On this last point it may help to note that there are a couple of manufacturing standards for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries used in e-bikes. Although it’s not a legal requirement, it may be that one of the standards is actually marked on the battery itself.

The standards are BS EN 50604‑1 and UN38.3, the latter required for lithium-ion battery transport by air, sea or land. Just because these standards are not marked on a battery doesn’t mean it does not comply with them – but it is a reassuring sign if a battery does bear one or both of these marks.

Note that using a replacement battery that does not come from the original manufacturer (whether a dealer is involved or not) may void the warranty of your electric bike or kit. Check with the e-bike or kit company to understand what their policy is regarding the use of aftermarket replacement batteries.

Replacement Batteries from Original Manufacturers

Bosch E-Bike Batteries

Only Bosch manufactured batteries will be used on any new Bosch e-bike – this has always been the case and so it makes advice on interchangeability a little more straightforward than with the likes of Shimano and Brose who have both allowed the use of third party batteries with their mid-drive motor systems.

There have been four basic designs made by Bosch over the years (good online overview here):

  • Rack mounted batteries: PowerPack in 300, 400, and 500 Wh versions which are all interchangeable with each other.
  • Down tube mounted batteries: PowerPack in 300, 400, and 500 Wh versions, current versions of which are all interchangeable with each other.
  • Frame integrated batteries: PowerTubes in 400, 500, and 625Wh versions, with the 400 and 500 units being interchangeable with each other. The 625Wh may be retrofittable but it needs a compatible frame with a big enough space to house it (400 and 500 units are the same physical dimensions but 625 is bigger). 500 and 625 Wh units are used on the Dual Battery system to give a capacity up to 1250Wh.
  • Frame Integrated ‘Smart’ Option batteries: This is a new 750Wh option for 2022 and will be only compatible with 2022 e-bikes that feature the Bosch ‘Smart’ system and will not be compatible with other Bosch e-bikes that are ‘non-Smart’. Similarly, other types of PowerTube batteries (400, 500, and 625Wh versions) will not be compatible with e-bikes featuring Bosch’s ‘Smart’ system.

Some third-party batteries compatible with Bosch systems are available as detailed in the section below.

There are some suppliers of batteries that will fit older models, in some cases dating back to 2011 when the Bosch e-bikes first entered the market, for example, The Holland Bike Shop in Europe sells some batteries compatible with much older Bosch-powered models.

Shimano E-Bike Batteries

Shimano produces its own brand batteries for use on their systems, but you may also find new e-bikes powered by Shimano motor systems with batteries manufactured by their licensed partners Darfon and SMP. These third party batteries are not interchangeable with any Shimano batteries.

Shimano’s current range includes rack-mounted, downtube-mounted and frame-integrated batteries from 418Wh to 630Wh. You can see a brief overview with detailed links to each battery on offer here.

It’s important to note that each battery model has a limited number of specific battery mounts it will work with, so it is important to replace an old battery with one that is compatible with the mount on your e-bike. You can check out detailed compatibility info here and here.

Shimano says that ‘the oldest current battery we have is the BT-E6000 and the corresponding battery mount BM-E6000. These are compatible with all five of our current drive units (DU-EP8/E8000/E7000/E6100/E5000), but not earlier systems. For reference, DU-E8000 is the oldest in that list – it was introduced in 2016.’

Brose E-Bike Batteries

The only battery listed on Brose’s own website is a 630Wh frame-integrated option.

However, Brose systems are widely used by other manufacturers who also spec own-brand or third-party batteries. These include the likes of the widely respected battery manufacturer BMZ and well-known brands like Scott and BULLS.

For example, Specialized’s ‘full power’ range use Brose-based mid drives and a range of their own brand frame-integrated batteries. Although information on interchangeability is scarce, a Specialized FAQ page, in response to the question ‘Can I increase range by using the 604Wh aftermarket battery in any Turbo Vado/Como?’ says yes, all Vado batteries are cross-compatible as long as you are running the latest firmware (by implication so are Como and Turbo full power batteries are cross-compatible too).

The above appears only to address compatibility on current Specialized models and battery availability for older models appears a bit more complex with lots of debate online over the matter.

The fact that the latest Specialized e-bike batteries contain a Bluetooth chip to communicate with the latest Mission Control App certainly suggest both backward compatibility and availability of third party batteries will be very limited. Current e-bike batteries available from Specialized can be found here.

electric, trike

Yamaha E-Bike Batteries

Yamaha has integrated, rack-mounted and frame-mounted options ranging between 400Wh and 600Wh but information on backward compatibility is rather hard to find. Their systems appear on Haibike models and in the US on their own brand models too.

Giant use Yamaha motor systems but apparently have their own brand of battery – the EnergyPak range. The standard EnergyPak comes in rack-mounted and frame-integrated options whilst the Smart Compact variant allows for faster charging.

Finally, there is the Giant EnergyPak Plus, for use with the Smart Compact – a range extender style battery that fits onto the frame and effectively increases the capacity of the main Plus battery.

Giant’s Service web page states that there are EnergyPaks with 300, 360, 400, 500 and 625Wh capacities and also states ‘Giant EnergyPaks are interchangeable’.

Fazua E-Bike Batteries

This lightweight German-made system uses a frame-integrated 250Wh design and there have been two types of battery, Battery 250 and Battery 250X, the latter having the ability to be switched on and off remotely.

The latest Fazua Evation 250X battery is compatible with all Fazua electric bikes from 2019-22.

GRIN and Cytronex E-bike Kit Batteries

Canada’s GRIN is a true expert in producing a wide variety of e-bike kits. Whilst they do several designs of batteries, one of their best options from a replaceability point of view is their own brand LiGo batteries.

LiGo batteries are very unusual in being modular so that you can easily connect together as many as you like to increase or decrease battery capacity at will. They are particularly suitable for lightweight and folding bikes (I use them on a GRIN Brompton kit) and also for those who want to air travel with e-bikes as the individual battery units are only 98Wh and so are generally allowed on passenger aircraft (disconnect them from each other for travel and reconnect them on landing to make a useful e-bike battery).

electric, trike

The design has been around for several years and is backward compatible.

The UK’s Cytronex produces both European and US spec lightweight kits which use a unique own-design of ‘bottle battery’.

Cytronex says all their lithium bottles are compatible forwards and backward from the first version in 2017. They have different firmware for the new Bluetooth variant but both this and the non-Bluetooth version allow you to use the new 2-way – 5 level Boost Button or the previous one-way 3 level button.

In fact, if you have old and new kits on two bikes you can switch the bottle between both and it will recognize the two different button types automatically.

E-bike Manufacturers Own Brand Batteries

There are hundreds of e-bike manufacturers in the more budget space so it’s way beyond the scope of this guide to cover the options for each one; rather we’ll take a look at a couple of the market leaders.

Rad Power Bikes E-Bike Batteries

Rad Power Bikes first started producing e-bikes for the North American market in 2015 and now claims to be the US market leader. Their website lists several replacement batteries and their current lineup of bikes uses one of two battery designs.

There is the External Battery Pack (with the option for the smaller pack specific to the RadMission) which is compatible with all 2018 and newer model ebikes except the RadRover 6 Plus and RadCity 5 Plus, which use the Semi-Integrated Battery Pack.

Rad Power Bikes does offer legacy options for bikes older than that 2018 ‘cutoff’ and although some of these legacy batteries are currently out of stock Rad says they have plans to restock them.

The battery packs are consistent across their main sales areas of Canada, US and Europe.

The Rad Power website has a great filter system so you can track down the compatibility of what batteries are in stock against all current and previous models, right back to the original 2015 RadRover. All e-bike manufacturers’ websites should provide this service!

Pedego E-Bike Batteries

A longstanding US manufacturer with a clear set of battery specs for current models here. However, there doesn’t appear to be any info about legacy batteries or backward compatibility.

Interestingly, and it seems uniquely amongst the mainstream manufacturers, Pedego have recently introduced a serviceable battery (pictured above) – designed to be easily maintained at the local Pedego store. It features a rear light, brake light and indicators to boot.

Batteries for Out-Dated Motor Systems

There are a number of older motor and battery systems that are either not used or little used these days but there are still some suppliers out there who may be able to help out and if you are in this position a bit of internet research might just turn something up. Let’s take a look at a couple of examples.

BionX E-Bike Batteries

BionX operated between 1998 and 2018 and were once one of the leading e-bike system manufacturers in North America, with the likes of Trek and Kalkhoff using their systems.

There are still limited stocks of spare parts available here and there, including batteries, for example on this Ohm webpage.

Heinzmann E-Bike Batteries

German company Heinzmann had a great reputation for quality and produced the now obsolete Classic system and the newer Direct Power system. At various times both were available as kits or fitted to off-the-peg e-bikes.

In the UK Electric Vehicle Solutions are the main stockist of complete Direct Power kits and of spare parts for the Classic system.

What About Non-removable Frame Integrated Batteries?

A relatively small number of e-bike batteries are incorporated into the frame and not designed to be removed by the rider – they must be charged on the bike. Whilst perhaps inconvenient for some, the system has the benefit of a sleeker and simpler design and keeps the battery cells well-protected.

The Ebikemotion X35 system is one example of the most common lightweight systems out there to feature a frame-enclosed battery.

When it comes to replacing these batteries, to be clear, our official advice is that this is a job for the dealer, or expert shops to do only.

DIY in this area can get tricky in a hurry. Looking into service options to replace batteries in an integrated system is something to consider before purchasing the bike.

Third-Party Replacement E-Bike Batteries

For some older batteries – or even some current ones – there may be manufacturers other than the so-called OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) who made the original batteries. These third-party companies are not recognized by the original e-bike manufacturers so if possible it is always best to go back to your dealer or the manufacturer directly to source an original battery.

However, third-party batteries may be a solution where no original batteries appear to be available.

There are a growing number of companies that provide third-party batteries and here we take a look at a couple of the bigger operations.

Please note that on e-bikes that are still in their warranty period, replacing the battery with one from a third-party manufacturer will most likely void the warranty.

FTH Power has a good amount of experience in the electronics business and has diagnostics and assembly capabilities. They look to have good stocks of popular far eastern battery brands such as Reention (used by the likes of Juiced and Surface 604) and Hailong. They also have this handy battery/model finder to see if they have batteries for your particular model of e-bike.

Third-party battery provision (and recelling services) appear to be bigger business in mainland northern Europe than in the U.S. It makes sense, this is where e-bikes have been around much longer and where the average value of e-bikes is higher. The need to keep older bikes going longer is greater. For example, Heskon is a major supplier of replacement batteries to dealers and Fiets Accu Revisie is the part of Heskon that sells direct to customers.

The UK’s Electric Transport Shop network offers battery diagnosis (refundable against a replacement battery or recell if required). The ETS says they also have stocks of Battery Management System chips that can be used on certain packs, usually on older e-bikes.

The ETS also says ‘There are so many shapes of e-bike batteries now that we cannot guarantee that we have cell packs to fit them all and it is usually cheaper to buy a factory-built replacement than to hand-build a replacement pack in the UK so we usually recommend buying a battery from the original supplier if the diagnosis proves that’s what is needed. If their supplier is no longer available to supply a replacement pack in this instance we will help people find a suitable replacement or as a last resort we will offer to wire in an alternative pack which may be in a different position on the bike.’

What Should I Do With My Old E-bike Battery?

If at all possible the ideal solution is to take it back to the dealer you bought it from who will send it on for recycling.

In the US the industry is in the midst of setting up its own recycling scheme. It was organized by People for Bikes and will be directly coordinated under the auspices of Call2Recycle. There will be a network of battery drop-off locations from the nation’s roughly 3,000 independent bike shops. Manufacturers and retailers can sign up here.

The batteries will be sent on to ‘processing partners’, four of which are domestic and two of which are foreign—one in South Korea and one in Belgium.

The consortium brands are funding the recycling service, which will be free to riders; of course, consumers will still have to pay for replacement batteries. There are also plans for a consumer-direct mail-in recycling option in the summer – EBR will keep you posted on its development.

There are already such ready-made recycling networks in mainland Europe and the UK is just beginning to establish such a network.

This guide to replacement electric bike batteries hopefully covered the basics of what is out there for you. It’s certainly just the tip of the iceberg though. If there is anything else that wasn’t covered here, let us know in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев below and we’ll update this guide with the info our readers are looking for!

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