E-Bike Battery Pack Market Size Share Analysis. Growth Trends Forecasts (2023. 2028)
The E-Bike Battery Pack Market is Segmented by Battery Type (Lithium-ion Battery, Lead Acid Battery, and Other Battery Types), Battery Pack Position Type (Rear Carrier, Down Tube, and In-tube Battery Pack), and Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and South America). The report offers market size and forecast in value (USD million) for all the above segments.
E-Bike Battery Pack Market Size
Disclaimer: Major Players sorted in no particular order
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E-Bike Battery Pack Market Analysis
The e-bike battery pack market is valued at USD 8.74 billion, and it is expected to record a CAGR of 13.33% over the next five years.
In 2020, the e-bike battery pack market witnessed a steady downfall in global demand due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Governments across the nations issued strict policies and regulatory frameworks to lower infection rates. However, on a microscale, the pandemic had a positive impact on electric bike sales. The growing health concerns resulted in more sales of e-bikes. For instance,
The motor and battery are the two key components of an e-bike. Choosing the right battery pack plays a crucial role in purchasing an e-bike. The battery is also the costliest component of an e-bike. Currently, there are 24V, 36V, 48V, 52V, and 72V batteries available for e-bike applications.
Most legal electric bike kits use a 36V battery, and the more powerful motors may use a 48V or even a 52V battery. For very high-performance e-bikes, voltages can go up to 72V and beyond.
Over the long term, growing e-bike sales, a rise in e-bike sharing services, government initiatives to promote electromobility, and new launches of battery packs are expected to result in healthy sales of e-bike battery packs.
Key players are launching new products to address the growing market for e-bike battery packs and gain more market share. For instance,
- In July 2022, Appear Inc. launched new graphene battery packs in 36V, 48V, 60V, 64V, and 72V ratings for E-Bikes, E-Scooters, and Pedelecs.
- In July 2022, UK-based e-bike conversion company Swytch launched its new e-bike conversion kit.
Geographically, Asia-Pacific was predicted to be the largest market for e-bike battery packs due to the widespread adoption of e-bikes, many major cities offering e-bike sharing services, Rapid urbanization, growing traffic congestion and vehicular pollution, the large presence of battery OEMs, and growing usage of e-bikes by E-commerce and food delivery companies for last-mile delivery applications.
Europe is predicted to be the next biggest market for e-bike battery packs due to the rising sales of e-bikes, growing health consciousness amongst the general population, and the growing tendency to use e-bikes for adventure activities like mountaineering.
Thus, the confluence of the aforementioned factors is expected to produce significant growth in the e-bike battery pack market.
E-Bike Battery Pack Industry Segmentation
An E-bike battery pack is a rechargeable battery pack used to power e-bikes. Batteries vary according to the voltage, total charge capacity (amp hours), weight, the number of charging cycles before performance degrades, and ability to handle over-voltage charging conditions.
The E-Bike Battery Pack Market is Segmented by Battery Type (Lithium-ion Battery, Lead Acid Battery, and Other Battery Types), Battery Pack Position Type (Rear Carrier, Down Tube, and In-tube Battery Pack), and Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and South America). The report offers market size and forecast in value (USD million) for all the above segments. The report also offers the market dynamics, latest trends, size, share, and industry overview.
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E-Bike Battery Pack Market Trends
This section covers the major market trends shaping the E-Bike Battery Pack Market according to our research experts:
Growing Demand for Lithium-ion Batteries
It is anticipated that, between 2021 and 2023, more than 130 million e-bikes (using all battery technologies) will be sold. In 2023, e-bike sales are expected to top 40 million units worldwide. The majority of the e-bikes sold each year used heavy lead-acid batteries. Over the forecast period, about two-fifths of all e-bikes sold globally are anticipated to feature lithium-ion batteries, with the proportion of lithium-ion batteries-powered e-bikes starting at about 25% in 2021 and rising to more than 60% during the forecast period.
E-bikes have efficient motors and the largest integrated batteries. Even then, for longer rides, the demand is unmet. To address this challenge, an additional e-bike range extender is being launched in the market so that the biker does not have to worry about the battery status. For instance,
- In February 2022, Priority Bicycles launched a range extender for its Current range of e-bikes. The range extender is a 500 kWh battery and will double the bike’s standard range to 64 kilometers and 80 kilometers if used on lower power.
Although e-bikes batteries were produced mainly by established players in the past, many small and medium companies have also started using innovative methods to create more durable batteries to compete in the highly competitive market.
Key players are working to enhance the overall range and performance of the battery by launching new batteries. For instance,
- In September 2022, Bosch released its new race-oriented drive system, the Bosch Performance Line CX Race Limited Edition. In Race mode, the new system will have up to 400% support of the rider’s power, meaning riders can get up to speed faster.
- In September 2022, Yamaha Bicycles launched the updated Yamaha PW series S2 drive unit with 75 Nm torque. The new motor offers 7% more torque, 16% weight reduction, and 20% less volume than the previous generation PW-ST motor.
Thus, the aforementioned factors are projected to propel the market for e-bike battery packs market over the next five years.
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Asia-Pacific to Hold Major Market Share
In 2021, Asia-Pacific was the largest market for e-bike battery packs. China has contributed to more than 50% of the Asia-Pacific e-bike battery pack market during 2018-2020, owing to its high consumption of electric bikes, to tackle heavy traffic conditions and growing vehicle pollution in the country.
China is the global market leader for e-bikes and e-bike components, especially the battery. The players in the market are constantly investing in RD capabilities and production capacities to stay ahead of the competition. For instance, Contemporary Amperex Technology, Tianneng Battery, and Shenzhen Topband are adding extra production lines for LFP (lithium iron phosphate) batteries, majorly for e-bicycle applications.
The COVID-19 outbreak led to a sharp rise in the demand for electric bikes in China. The MaaS or mobility-as-a-service concept is gaining traction in China, and bike-sharing players such as Meituan’s Mobike put several electric bikes on roads to cater to the rising demand in 2021. Bike-sharing companies are collaborating with battery makers to swap discharged and faulty batteries at dedicated kiosks. Investments are being made to strengthen charging infrastructure, and the use of technology such as artificial intelligence is helping predict demand more precisely.
In addition, Japan remained the second most potential country for e-bike battery packs in the Asia-Pacific region. Major factors driving the growth of the market in the country are the expanding customer base across all age groups and the penetration of electric sports bicycles.
Thus, Asia-Pacific is anticipated to remain the largest market for e-bike battery packs in the world due to the above factors.
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E-Bike Battery Pack Industry Overview
The e-bike battery pack market is moderately consolidated, with major players holding most of the market share. Some of the major players include Bosch, Liv Cycling (EnergyPak), Panasonic, Samsung SDI, and Shinamo Inc. These companies are engaging in new product launches, joint ventures, and mergers and acquisitions to expand their business activities and cement their market position. For instance,
- In September 2022, the US-based e-bike company Optibike launched a 2,500W electric bicycle motor that claims to have the highest power-to-weight ratio in the world.
- In July 2022, ZappBatt and Toshiba signed a partnership agreement to develop long-lasting e-bike batteries using ZappBatt’s proprietary AI software and Toshiba’s lithium titanium oxide (LTO) battery cells, which will make lithium titanium oxide to be faster, smarter, and more cost-effective battery system.
E-Bike Battery Pack Market Leaders
Disclaimer: Major Players sorted in no particular order
E-Bike Battery Pack Market Report. Table of Contents
- 1.1 Study Assumptions
- 1.2 Scope of the Study
- 4.1 Market Drivers
- 4.2 Market Restraints
- 4.3 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
- 4.3.1 Threat of New Entrants
- 4.3.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers/Consumers
- 4.3.3 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
- 4.3.4 Threat of Substitute Products
- 4.3.5 Intensity of Competitive Rivalry
- 5.1 Battery Type
- 5.1.1 Lithium-ion Battery
- 5.1.2 Lead Acid Battery
- 5.1.3 Other Battery Types
- 5.2.1 Rear Carrier
- 5.2.2 Down Tube
- 5.2.3 In Frame
- 5.3.1 North America
- 188.8.131.52 United States
- 184.108.40.206 Canada
- 220.127.116.11 Mexico
- 18.104.22.168 Rest of North America
- 22.214.171.124 United Kingdom
- 126.96.36.199 Germany
- 188.8.131.52 France
- 184.108.40.206 Italy
- 220.127.116.11 Rest of Europe
- 18.104.22.168 China
- 22.214.171.124 India
- 126.96.36.199 Japan
- 188.8.131.52 South Korea
- 184.108.40.206 Rest of Asia-Pacific
- 220.127.116.11 South Africa
- 18.104.22.168 United Arab Emirates
- 22.214.171.124 Saudi Arabia
- 126.96.36.199 Egypt
- 188.8.131.52 Rest of Middle East and Africa
- 184.108.40.206 Brazil
- 220.127.116.11 Argentina
- 18.104.22.168 Rest of South America
- 6.1 Vendor Market Share
- 6.2 Company Profiles
- 6.2.1 E-bike Battery Pack Manufacturers
- 22.214.171.124 Samsung SDI Co. Ltd
- 126.96.36.199 Yamaha Corporation
- 188.8.131.52 Yoku Energy (Zhangzhou) Co. Ltd
- 184.108.40.206 Kingbo Power Technology Co. Limited
- 220.127.116.11 Liv Cycling
- 18.104.22.168 Shimano Inc.
- 22.214.171.124 Panasonic Industry Europe GmbH
- 126.96.36.199 BMZ GmbH
- 188.8.131.52 Mahle GmbH
- 184.108.40.206 Varta AG
- 220.127.116.11 Johnson Matthey
- 18.104.22.168 Solaremobility (Fotona Mobility)
- 22.214.171.124 Enerpower
- 126.96.36.199 Giant Bicycles Co. Ltd
- 188.8.131.52 Merida Industry Co. Ltd
- 184.108.40.206 Riese Muller
- 220.127.116.11 Fritzmeier Systems GmbH Co. KG (M1 Sporttechnik)
- 18.104.22.168 Yamaha Bicycles
- 22.214.171.124 Trek Bikes
- 126.96.36.199 Cannondale Bicycle Corporation
- 188.8.131.52 PON Bicycle Holding BV
- 184.108.40.206 VanMoof BV
- 220.127.116.11 Coboc
- 18.104.22.168 Ampler Bikes
- 22.214.171.124 Cowboy
- 126.96.36.199 Desiknio
- 188.8.131.52 Accell Group NV
- 184.108.40.206 Cycle Europe AB
- 220.127.116.11 Decathlon SA
- 18.104.22.168 Cross Ltd
- 22.214.171.124 Multicycle (Kross SA)
- 126.96.36.199 ZEG
- 188.8.131.52 Prophete GmbH u. Co. KG
- 184.108.40.206 MarkenTechnikService GmbH (MTS) Group (Merger of Inter-Union Technohandel GmbH and SPA SystemPartner GmbH Co. KG)
- 220.127.116.11 Specialized Bicycle Components Inc.
- 18.104.22.168 Manufacture Française du Cycle (MFC)
- 22.214.171.124 Scott Sports
- 126.96.36.199 Cube GmbH Co. KG
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E-Bike Battery Recycling Program Announced In The US
E-bike battery recycling is just getting started in the US, but already, more than 36,000 pounds of batteries have been processed.
PeopleForBikes encourages people to ride bicycles and governments to improve facilities for bicyclists. Call2Recycle helps people recycle the batteries in their electronic devices responsibly. Together, they have created the Hungry For Batteries program that focuses on recycling e-bike battery systems in the US.
The new program says that millions of electric bikes are being ridden on roads and trails across the US today. Those e-bikes are helping Americans replace car trips, reduce their personal carbon footprint, and access the countless benefits and joys of the great outdoors. With those bikes, there are also millions of lithium-ion batteries that will need to be properly managed at their end of life.
The bicycle industry recently came together to establish a battery recycling program to reduce negative impacts on our planet by removing e-bike batteries from our waste streams. The new program, powered by Call2Recycle and endorsed by PeopleForBikes, has already recycled more than 36,000 pounds of batteries.
The Hungry for Batteries campaign coordinates electric bike battery disposal for 52 e-bike brands and suppliers. It includes more than 1,800 retail drop-off locations in the United States, a vast network that should make recycling much simpler for cyclists.
According to Cycling Tips, riders who own an e-bike from one of the participating brands can drop their e-bike battery off at the dealership where they purchased their bicycle. That dealer then works with Call2Recycle to transport the battery to a local sorter or recycler.
Each dealer is trained to collect the battery using special recycling kits. Batteries that have been compromised in some way — swelling, loose wires showing, or obvious signs that the battery has been tampered with — go into one kit, while uncompromised batteries go into another kit. The dealer then works with Call2Recycle, which adds the batteries to its recycling stream.
The goal is always to keep the battery close to its original starting point, according to Call2Recycle. There’s no point in transporting a battery long distances to be recycled if it can be done closer so less energy is used. Call2Recycle currently works with Redwood Materials, Li-Cycle, RCI, and Interco. Once a recycler receives a battery, it determines how much of it is reusable and proceeds to extract the materials and minerals contained inside. Up to 90% of a battery submitted for recycling can be completely reused to make more batteries.
E-Bike Battery Recycling Is Just Beginning
PeopleForBikes points out that “Hungry for Batteries” is far from a finished project. The original program started in November of 2021 through a partnership with Specialized, Call2Recycle, and PeopleForBikes. Since then, other brands and their retailers have been brought on board. The program focuses on making sure retailers receive the correct training so they can handle the returned batteries properly. With that training completed, the e-bike battery recycling process will be able to run as smoothly as possible.
The “Hungry for Batteries” program is about educating the public about how to recycle an e-bike battery responsibly. It features Watts, a character that may look familiar to fans of The Muppets. PeopleForBikes says it plans to introduce more characters and more stories that aim to educate the public about why recycling an e-bike battery is important and how to properly maintain the batteries used in e-bikes.
Responsible E-Bike Battery Recycling
Most of us are aware of the number of battery fires in the news recently. than a dozen people in New York City have been killed in fires attributed to faulty batteries in e-bikes, electric scooters, and hoverboards. The problem is the batteries in these products do not have a cooling system like most electric cars have.
EVs have elaborate battery management systems, but an e-bike battery typically has a rudimentary BMS at best. Many of the fires reported to date involve batteries that are being charged. Industry experts urge people not to leave the batteries connected to chargers overnight. They recommend the charger be disconnected as soon as the e-bike battery is fully charged.
Most CleanTechnica readers know that the lithium in a battery can create microscopic spikes called dendrites when the battery is charged or discharged. If those spikes of metal touch both the anode and cathode inside a battery cell, they create a short circuit. When that happens, the battery cell can quickly reach temperatures of 500º C. What takes place next is known in the battery business politely as “Rapid disassembly.” Most of us would simply call it an explosion. If one cell overheats, that can cause adjoining cells to overheat, and soon there is a full-on conflagration.
Lithium-ion battery fires are not new, but the number of devices powered by batteries has increased dramatically, which means the total number of fires has increased as well, even if statistically the odds of any one battery cell catching fire is infinitesimally small.
Most of the batteries for personal mobility devices like electric bicycles come from China. Consumers know little about the battery cells inside their e-bike battery pack. Who made them? Do they all come from the same manufacturer? Are cells from different companies with different electrical properties being thrown together to make battery packs? We simply don’t know, and so we rely on the integrity of the bicycle manufacturer to keep us safe.
There is a move afoot to bring some order to the chaos of batteries for personal transportation devices. One suggestion is for consumers to insist that the battery pack for their e-bike carry the Underwriters Laboratory seal of approval. UL has been promoting the safety of electrical devices for generations, but it tests only a fraction of the batteries used today in e-bikes, scooters, hoverboards, and the like. Requiring the UL seal would be a big step forward for safety, but could limit the number of battery-operated personal mobility devices available for sale to the public.
The one thing everyone agrees with is that people absolutely, positively must not dispose of lithium-ion batteries in the trash. Sadly, it is much too easy to do precisely that. America needs more battery recycling programs. The materials inside an e-bike battery are much too precious to discard in a landfill, and the risk of a catastrophic fire that could injure innocent people is too great.
To find one of the 1,800 e-bike dealers in America that participates in the battery recycling program near you, check the Hungry For Batteries website. Only batteries from participating manufacturers are accepted.
The program does not address the issue of recycling the battery in an e-bike purchased online. Before you buy for a digital retailer, you may want to inquire about its recycling policy. If it says it doesn’t have one, you may want to look elsewhere.
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Here’s why you can’t trust electric bike companies when it comes to battery range
It’s a tale as old as time. Man sees electric bike advertisement touting 50-mile range. Man buys e-bike. Man’s first ride gets 25 miles before the battery’s charge dwindles. Man is justifiably disappointed.
So what gives? Why does it seem like you can never trust the range numbers that the electric bike makers tell us?
The short answer is that it seems that way because that’s the way it is. You simply can’t trust the range figure printed on an electric bicycle’s marketing material. At least not most of the time.
There are several good reasons for this, so let’s break them down.
No standard for range testing for e-bikes
First of all, e-bikes aren’t like cars. There aren’t any standards for battery range testing on e-bikes. It’s not like the “EPA-rated 32 mpg” or “NEDC-tested 250 miles of range” you’ll see in car ads.
Range ratings for e-bikes aren’t determined by outside agencies. They are determined by the bike makers themselves. In the best case, the printed distance figures come from real-world range testing. Some companies like Aventon and Lectric eBikes have stepped up with real-world range data on their sites for each level of pedal assist or throttle riding. That’s the best case. But in the worst case, some companies just give us numbers that they pull out of a hat or theorize that their bike can probably achieve.
Which companies are which? Without hard data displayed on the company’s site, it’s hard to know. That’s the problem. Unless a company puts real-world testing data out there, we’re left to guess.
Range varies WIDELY based on a number of factors
This is actually the single largest reason that you almost never actually achieve the range quoted by the e-bike manufacturer. There is a huge variance in the real-world battery range of an e-bike on a single charge. There are literally dozens of factors that have significant impacts on range.
Even if an e-bike company wanted to give one number as the ultimate, end all and be all, certified range of their e-bike – a number that they are confident you can achieve – they simply wouldn’t be able to do it. It just depends on too many factors.
It’s amazing how many factors can have a measurable impact on e-bike range.
Are your tires low on air or pumped to the max? Are you riding uphill or downhill? Tailwind or headwind? Brake rub? Crouched or sitting up tall? Is the road wet? Did you eat a big lunch? Have you eaten big lunches for the last 30 years? What gear are you in? What power level are you in? Knobby or smooth tires? Are you wearing a backpack or carrying cargo on a rack or basket? Any passengers with you? Are you riding on asphalt? Concrete? Dirt? Gravel? Sand? The list goes on and on.
Depending on the answers to those questions, the exact same electric bike could travel 15 miles or 60 miles on a single battery charge. Yeah, it’s wild.
Many people expect e-bike ranges to be more repeatable, similar to car mileage. But then again, consider that unlike cars, which often outweigh their drivers by 20 to 1, you probably outweigh your bike by 3 or 4 to 1. So changes in you or your environment have a much bigger impact on range than they do for other larger vehicles likes cars and trucks.
All of these factors make it harder for e-bike companies to offer a realistic range, and so they usually test for the best-case scenario. That means a lightweight rider (often listed at 150 lb., even though the average American adult female and male each weigh 170 and 200 lb., respectively) riding on a pancake flat and smooth surface with ultra-high air pressure in the tires and with the bike set into its lowest power mode. It’s not “cheating,” assuming they provide the real test data. It’s just putting their best pedaling foot forward. But in the real world, most of us won’t be riding in the same ideal conditions. So the “maximum” range that most e-bike companies quote simply aren’t realistic for most of us.
Throttle versus pedal assist range
This is another major factor affecting range. Any Europeans reading this, you poor things can ignore this section since your governments don’t believe you can be trusted with throttles. For the Americans, Canadians, Australians, and civil-disobeying Europeans still here with me, listen up.
The general rule of thumb is that throttle riding will nearly halve your range compared to pedal assist. That’s why most e-bike companies will list their maximum range based on pedal assist. When you see an e-bike listed as having a “50-mile range,” that’s almost certainly the pedal assist range. The throttle range is probably closer to 25-30 miles, depending on conditions. A true 50-mile throttle-only range would usually require having a battery of at least 1,300 Wh, or around twice the size of an average e-bike battery.
Some companies like Rad Power Bikes are pretty good about listing a range of ranges (get it?) instead of a single number. For example, they tell us that the RadRunner 3 Plus’s range is “Estimated 25-45 miles per charge (40-72 km)” in the specs section of the product page, though they’re still guilty of the slightly misleading “Up to 45 miles per charge” phrase in larger font on the main page.
How can you know an electric bike’s ‘real’ range?
There’s a messy, overgeneralized rule of thumb that I created to quickly judge approximate bike range. But be warned: It requires a small amount of math. Don’t worry though, you can handle it.
At 20 mph, my messy rule of thumb is 25 Wh/Mi for throttle riding and 15 Wh/Mi for pedal assist riding. This is for a decently powerful level – we’re not talking Eco Mode or Level 1 pedal assist here. At very low-power pedal assist where the rider does most of the work, it is possible to even achieve closer to 5 Wh/Mi.
For anyone who uses a more sensical system of measurement, that means when riding at 32 km/h, you can generally expect somewhere around 15 Wh/km on throttle and 9 Wh/km on pedal assist, though it can drop as low as 3 Wh/km on really low power pedal assist.
So to use my rule of thumb, simply divide the watt-hour capacity (Wh) of the battery by my efficiency numbers and you’ll get the rough range. An e-bike like the RadRunner 3 Plus mentioned above with a 624 Wh battery should get roughly 624 Wh ÷ 25 Wh/Mi = 25 miles of range on throttle-only riding. In sensical measurements, that’s 624 Wh ÷ 15 Wh/km = 41 km. That number actually aligns nicely with Rad’s published figures. Go figure.
Like I said though, this is a rough approximation. It can vary based on many factors. If you’re a heavy rider, you might even use slightly higher constants than I mentioned, such as 30 Wh/Mi instead of 25 Wh/Mi. Other factors like terrain and tire width make a big impact on this guesstimate system as well.
Top comment by Alejandro Mallado
Very interesting article! I commute on my Lectric XP 2.0 from Brooklyn to Manhattan, about 13 miles round trip, and I’m sadly force to charge it every day. I tried once to do 3 trips and could make it, so around 20 miles are feasible (mostly throttle but I try to pedal as much as I can). I’m now in search of a mid-drive ebike, cause I’d like to pedal all the time, and better battery life. But I fear that I’d get one before a potential rebate program in NY so I’ll wait a bit.
For science, I once took an e-bike with a teeny tiny 180 Wh battery on a long ride at the lowest possible power setting and with significant muscle effort on my part. I got a range of 56 miles (90 km), or close to 3 Wh/Mi. It was grueling, but it showed what is possible, and how companies can get away with claiming sky-high ranges that may be possible, even if unlikely.
So sure, my generalized rule of thumb above uses fuzzy numbers. But they aren’t anywhere near as fuzzy as the ratings from most e-bike manufacturers.
In conclusion, I don’t intend to claim that there is malice on the part of most companies that market e-bikes. Their goal isn’t to mislead. They’re just caught in an unfortunate system where people want a short and pretty answer to what is under the surface actually a long and ugly question, “How far does it go on a charge?”
So until people are prepared to receive a table of data in response to that question, companies are basically forced to choose between giving an unimpressive albeit more honest range spectrum like, “It can go 20-45 miles per charge,” or to just give the rosier answer of “It can go 45 miles.” With millions of dollars on the line, you can guess which one they prefer to choose.
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The Complete Guide to E-Bike Batteries: Care, Maintenance, and Storage
At the risk of being obvious: an e-bike without a battery is just a bike. But that said, not just any battery will do.
An e-bike battery is responsible for how much power can be delivered to your motor, translating into how much assistance your e-bike gives you on rides. It’s also among the most expensive single components of a bike, with high-quality replacements typically costing several hundred dollars. Because of this, learning about e-bike batteries is critical to getting the most out of your e-bike experience — and the most bang for your buck.
Here’s what we’re about to go over:
How Does An Electric Bicycle Battery Work?
The battery stores all the electrical energy that will eventually be sent to your motor. E-Bike motors don’t have any energy of their own, so the battery is what makes the whole electrical system possible.
E-bike batteries have to be powerful enough to support the motor throughout a typical ride. While you do need to charge your battery regularly, a quality e-bike battery shouldn’t interrupt your commute or sightseeing tour by powering down before your ride is over.
Magnum E-Bike batteries are made of a series of advanced lithium-ion cells. Each cell is like a mini battery; they join together with the other cells to create a battery powerful and long-lasting enough to take you where you need to go.
Volts, Amp-Hours, and Watt-Hours: What Do They Mean?
Voltage refers to the potential power of a battery. For example, a 48V battery is more powerful than a 36V one. Technically speaking, voltage measures the pressure that allows electrons to flow. Similar to water pressure from a hose, the higher the pressure, the more powerful it is.
On an e-bike, the voltage of the battery and motor have to be compatible. Using a battery with a lower voltage than the motor can handle is a waste of potential motor power. Conversely, using a battery with more voltage than the motor can use may cause damage to the motor.
For similar reasons, your battery’s charger needs to be rated at the same voltage as the battery.
If voltage is like water pressure in a hose, amperage is the amount of water flowing. Amp-hours (Ah) refers to how much energy a battery can provide in one hour. So the more amp-hours there are, the longer a battery can keep the motor running. E-Bike batteries typically have between 8Ah and 15Ah.
To combine these two metrics into one simple number, batteries are often rated using a single metric called watt-hours (Wh). Watt-hours are calculated by multiplying voltage by amp hours. For example, a 48V 15Ah battery would have 720Wh (4815 = 720).
It follows that a 36V 20Ah battery would also have 720Wh — but the similarities between those two batteries could end there. To get all the details of what makes a battery the right choice for your e-bike, you need to look deeper.
Qualities Of The Best E-Bike Batteries
There are many e-bike battery makers out there! So what’s the difference between a high-quality battery that will help you ride farther and a cheap battery that just doesn’t perform?
Not long ago, most batteries were made from heavy, inefficient, and unsustainable materials like lead-acid or nickel-cadmium. At Magnum, we use the latest lithium nickel cobalt manganese (Li-ncm) battery technology.
Battery Management System (BMS)
The battery management system in each Magnum E-Bike battery controls the individual performance of each battery cell. BMS makes sure that each smaller cell drains, charges, and works the same as others. Without an effective BMS, e-bike batteries would be inconsistent, failing to deliver predictable power to the motor.
Like any hardware, batteries become worn over time. BMS helps extend battery lifespan by avoiding the main causes of battery deterioration: overcharging and excessive depletion. Cells that overcharge get fried and lose performance. Similarly, when batteries drain too much energy and can’t properly recover it, they start to fail. BMS regulates charging and energy deployment across every individual cell, helping the overall battery to perform better and for longer.
Battery Cycle Lives And Long-Range Performance
The number of times you can charge and deplete (discharge) the battery completely before it starts to lose capacity is called its cycle life. It’s normal for batteries to lose performance over time, but higher-quality and better-made batteries have larger capacity and longer range, resulting in increased cycle lives.
Higher-quality batteries typically have a larger capacity and longer range compared to cheaper models. But it’s difficult to produce batteries with high amp-hours and watt-hours that still fit into the slim packaging necessary for a balanced, aerodynamic e-bike.
It’s important to note that batteries continue to function even after they start to lose some efficiency. When batteries have surpassed their cycle life, you may notice your ride range decreasing, needing a charge after fewer miles.
At Magnum Bikes, the cycle life of our advanced Lithium-NCM battery is 700 cycles. Once our batteries have powered riders through 700 charges and discharges, our battery still performs at around 80% of its original level. With proper care, you can typically get 800-1000 charge cycles out of your Magnum battery — roughly two to five years, depending on how frequently and how far you ride.
Best Tips To Maintain Your E-Bike Battery
As the most expensive part to replace on your e-bike, it’s worthwhile to take the extra time and effort to keep your battery in good health. For that reason, even seemingly obvious tips bear repeating.
Follow these recommendations to get the best performance and life out of your e-bike battery.
- Charge the battery before it gets to 30% life. Batteries are at their healthiest when they stay at or above a 30% charge level. When you’re out on a ride, watch your battery’s charge level. It’s shown on your e-bike’s display monitor. When you get down to 20% or even 10% battery, you’re at risk of losing power before you get back to your charging station. Not only does that put you at risk of unassisted pedaling for a long or hilly journey back home, but it also puts unnecessary strain on the battery. Over time, this speeds up the natural process of deterioration. If you go for extended rides, it may just be a fact of life that you’ll drop into the low battery levels. Don’t sweat it — just know that your battery will last a bit longer if it stays topped off.
- Don’t charge or use the battery on the bike while it’s hot. Batteries can get hot for a number of reasons. On really warm days, the outside temperature can cause a battery to overheat. Climbing steep terrain can cause the motor to get hot — and potentially the battery, too. Another cause of a hot battery is using a charger with a higher voltage than the battery. But whatever the reason, your response to a hot battery should always be the same: let it cool down before continuing use or charging.
- Don’t charge immediately after use. Even if your battery doesn’t feel hot, let it rest when you get home after a ride. You won’t have to wait long — batteries recover from use very quickly. You can use the time to hang up your helmet, remove your shoes, and maybe even give the bike a quick clean or tune-up. In less than 5 minutes, you can charge your battery to get ready for your next ride.
- Don’t use it immediately after charging. Are you seeing a pattern? When it comes to e-bike battery care, patience is a virtue! If you’re leaving on a ride right away, unplug the charger for just a few minutes before you head out. This valuable reset gives your battery time to prepare to transfer energy to the motor on your ride.
- Unplug the battery when fully charged. When your battery has reached 80% to 100% charge, go ahead and unplug the charger. Don’t worry; your battery will hold the charge until your next ride! This is important because while you can’t actually overfill your battery with power, you can strain the battery by continuing to charge it after it’s full.
- Keep your battery at the right temperature. When you’re not riding, store the battery around room temperature: 68°F/20°C or slightly lower. Feel free to store your bike in a weatherproof garage or shed, protected from the elements — but if the temps dip much higher or lower than 68°F/20°C, take the battery indoors.
- Don’t get your battery wet. This is true of any battery, really! Your battery has a sealed, waterproof protective cover that keeps it protected from the rain while you ride. Where you need to be careful is in cleaning and storing your bike and its battery. You might look to a pressure washer to get dirt and grime off your bike quickly, but the intense jet of water can get past the seals, damaging the inside of the battery. And when you aren’t riding your e-bike, store it inside. Excessive and continuous exposure to rain and snow can compromise the waterproof housing over time.
- Travel safe. Whether you’re traveling with your e-bike on a car rack or in a bike box for shipment, be sure to remove the battery beforehand. This protects it from damage or accidental loss. Remember that you also need to protect that battery from rain and snow! So removing it before putting your bike on a car rack is the best way to keep your battery dry while you travel.
- Know what to expect for winter performance. In addition to protecting your battery from snow and excessive cold, be aware that e-bike batteries are less efficient in the cold. This means they may deliver a reduced mileage range in extremely cold temps. Try to shorten your rides, or at least ensure that you’re able to charge your battery frequently for extended rides. But don’t worry; the performance will bounce back when warmer temperatures return.
- Always use the right charger. Your e-bike comes with a charger made specifically for that model; use it! It’s critical for battery health that the charger and battery are compatible and work with the same voltages. Otherwise, at best you’ll see extended charge times — and at worst, you can fry the battery.
Signs It’s Time To Replace Your Battery
Even with impeccable care, your battery will need to be replaced eventually. Once it’s surpassed its cycle life, the battery will begin to lose capacity. When this happens, a “full charge” will really only get you to about 80% of the charge level that the same battery got when it was brand new.
Having read all about your battery by now, you’ll probably recognize the signs early: reduced range or inconsistent performance. This is a normal part of your battery’s life. However, if you notice these signs early (for example, only a year or couple hundred cycles into using your battery), take your bike to a shop or call the manufacturer for more specific information.
When the time comes, make sure to replace your e-bike battery with one crafted for your specific e-bike make and model. As we mentioned earlier, this part is a significant investment, so it’s critical to make the right purchase! Consult your manual or call your manufacturer with any questions.
Take Care Of Your Battery And It’ll Take Care Of You
There isn’t a whole lot to remember for a healthy e-bike battery! Just keep an eye on your battery life when you’re riding, charge it when needed (but don’t forget to unplug when it’s done!), store it properly, and transport it safely. By following these steps to support long-lasting battery health, you’ll get the most out of your e-bike’s battery for many rides to come.