DIY 48V electric bike battery pack with 18650 lithium battery.
18650 is the originator of lithium-ion batteries. a standard lithium-ion battery model set by Sony in Japan in order to save costs. 18 represents a diameter of 18mm, 65 represents a length of 65mm, and 0 represents a cylindrical battery
Noramlly 18650 batteries are divided into lithium-ion batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries. The nominal voltage of the lithium ion battery is 3.7v, the charging cut-off voltage is 4.2v, the nominal voltage of the lithium iron phosphate battery is 3.2V, the charging cut-off voltage is 3.6v, the capacity is usually 1200mAh-3000mAh, and the common capacity is 2200mAh-2600mAh.
It is the same for lithium batteries marked 3.7V or 4.2V. It’s just that each manufacturer’s label is different. 3.7V refers to the platform voltage (typical voltage) when the battery is discharged during use, and 4.2V refers to the voltage when the battery is fully charged. Common rechargeable 18650 lithium batteries, the voltage is marked 3.6 or 3.7v, when fully charged is 4.2v, this has nothing to do with the power (capacity). The mainstream capacity of 18650 batteries ranges from 1800mAh to 2600mAh, (the capacity of 18650 power batteries is mostly 2200~3600mAh). It is generally believed that if the no-load voltage of the lithium battery is lower than 3.0V, it is considered to be exhausted (the specific value depends on the threshold value of the battery protection board, such as lower than 2.8V and 3.2V). Most lithium batteries cannot be discharged with no-load voltage below 3.2V, otherwise excessive discharge will damage the battery (generally, lithium batteries on the market are basically used with a protection board, so excessive discharge will lead to the protection board can not detect the battery, so that the battery can not be charged). 4.2V is the maximum limit voltage for battery charging. It is generally believed that the lithium battery is fully charged when the no-load voltage is charged to 4.2V. In the process of battery charging, the battery voltage gradually rises from 3.7V to 4.2V. Lithium battery charging cannot charge the no-load voltage above 4.2V, otherwise the battery will be damaged. This is the special feature of lithium batteries.
Prepare a spot welder, this is sequre SW1 spot welder
Make a nickel plate, which is used to connect the battery electrodes.
(Nickel sheets need to be cut in two lengths)
Use a special fixture to locate the battery and arrange the batteries
Weld the nickel sheet with the same electrode of the battery so that the batteries are connected in parallel. Only increase the capacity without increasing the voltage.
Every 7 in parallel, completely manual spot welding, this is the most space-saving arrangement.
Two two arranged in positive and negative directions. Use barley to directly insulate the battery row.
Each line of battery should be separated with highland barley paper to prevent skin damage resulting in short circuit. The voltage of the battery pack welded in series is multiplied by 13 times, 3.7v multiple by 13 is equal to 48.1v.
You can see the highland barley paper in the middle of two lines of battery.
Secure the entire battery pack with duct tape and use a heat-resistant one as much as possible.
Cover the top and bottom with highland barley paper and fix it, mainly for insulation.
Fix the battery management protection module.
Handle the cable of the protection board, and separate the crossed cables with tape to avoid the risk of short circuit.
Cut off all the extra cable
Solder the wire to nickel plate
The protection board will heat up, so need to use two layers of 3M double-sided tape to separate the protection board.
Processing the positive and negative poles of input (use red copper sheet)
The exposed part of the copper sheet is wired to silica gel wire.
The negative connection in the picture is in the lower left corner, and the positive connection is in the upper right corner. The diagonal design allows the current to be distributed as evenly as possible on each battery.
Then wrap it with duct tape again
At last, wrapped with the heat shrink tube.
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Luna E-Fusion Ebike Battery
When you buy a Luna E-Fusion pack you are doing the right thing by buying a product made in the USA by a quality group of Americans who really love ebikes. You are promoting a progressive company dedicated to greatness as an american ebike manufacturer. Luna is a breath of fresh air in what has been a stale and slow industry.
Luna from the beginning has been a company always improving itself and its offerings. We are relentless and fast when it comes to innovation. We know that ebikes have been left in the dark ages for many years by ebike business who did not care.
For 2 years now Luna has been working toward the goal of releasing a state of the art battery pack which offers high performance, reliability, safety, and beautiful design, and break our dependence on buying cases and batteries from Asia which has been an ordeal. Summer of 2017 Luna released the E-Fusion line up of battery packs made in sunny California.
We continue to learn, improve and innovate our designs and validate our findings with real testing. We love ebikes and we hope it shows.
Fit and Finish
Each battery case is custom made to fit your bike. Not all bikes frames are the same (every bike is a snowflake) and the craftsman at Luna do the necessary steps using the latest in technology to ensure a perfect fit. The integrated battery pack custom designed for the pack gives the Luna E-Fusion Ebike such a clean and mean look. You will not find a high performance ebike on the market with this kind of fit and finish for under 6k anywhere.
Advanced Mounting Systems
Luna first started on this Fusion project because we hated the existing mounts of chinese battery packs. With the E-Fusion pack we use cleverly engineered magnetic mounts, velcro straps, or mechanical dove tail mounts depending on what is needed to fit a particular bike.
The battery is easily removable so you can take it with you for charging, or swap out for another battery. (bike buyers can buy multiple batteries).
Note: If you need a particular mounting solution and are unsure how it works on the listing you are viewing please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for details. Generally speaking, bikes with Wolf use magnetic mounts and potentially lockable reinforcement rails, bikes like Apex and Apollo mount with Allen keys, and classic custom Fusion packs use zipties or reusable metal cable ties.
Its whats on the inside that counts
Inside is the Luna battery pack even though when a pack is finished it is one piece and cannot be opened. We use a potting compound to completely seal the case which makes it extremely element proof and collision proof. The pack should not ever need opening since it is made to be rugged and robust.
USA made using the most advanced technologies available.
Engineered to be as safe and as reliable the pack can be given the currently available technology
Uses Luna’s Advanced 50 amp continuous BMS (long bursts of 80amps)
Its the outside that defines the E-Fusion
The fusion is by far the most beautiful Ebike battery every constructed and will define your ebike with its craftsmanship and artistry.
We use a combination of materials for different fusion packs to match each particular bike. We use a myriad of materials, paint and artistry to make a pack that is not just a brick, a box or a round cylinder. but a piece of art.
And because its fit perfectly to the frame we can fit the maximum size battery that the bike will ever hold.
And we dont stop there. each case we include surprise flairs and features. Each model of fusion pack will have special features to match the bike its built for.
We Use German made Rosenberg Magnetic connectors for the ultimate in convenience, reliability and water resistance
Each pack is potted with the most advanced compound which makes the case and battery pack into one piece and this fusion is almost completely water proof, salt and fog safe, and collision proof.
The Luna Fusion packs feature German made Rosenberg charge connectors which are the the most advanced charge plugs for an ebike ever offered. Their clever design means super convenient and safe charger hook up even at night, and their unique design makes your pack even more waterproof. Read this write up on Rosenburg connectors for more info.
The Best Ingredients USA has to offer
Panasonic 18650 GA Cells are guaranteed authentic and A Grade bought from a USA supplier
German Made Rosenberg magnetic charge connectors
Xt-90 spark resistant connectors for the discharge
The Luna BMS made to Luna Spec to make your pack robust and safe.
The most advanced potting compound which surrounds every cell like a bullet proof and waterproof epoxy.
The best battery case ever conceived, handmade with love in the USA
State of the art assembly in the USA
We utilize some of the most advanced equipment and techniques in the battery industry to insure the safest and most reliable pack.
CNC equipment here in the USA makes many custom components for each pack and aids in the final assembly.
Quality control is ensured at every step by Americans who care and believe in what we are building.
Luna Cycles is a USA factory run by Americans who love ebikes and actually ride ebikes. That is a rare thing.
The Dolphin, Whale and Shark Killer
The Luna Fusion pack is ironically a killer of the packs luna made so popular, and even coined them with their popular fish names. Luna will continue to sale Dolphins and Sharks for conversion bikes.
Each pack is charged and discharged twice in our state of the art testing machines before being sent to the customer to ensure there are no flaws inside the pack.
We do a lot of real world testing as well with each new pack design.
Each Pack design is also un38.3 tested here in the USA to ensure safety and reliable performance.
Un38.3 testing includes drop, vibration testing, shock, high pressure testing. salt and fog testing.
Luna cycles is stepping up to be a technological leader in the Ebike Game.
We want to make fast and safe ebikes that look awesome and do not cost an arm and a leg.
EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack With Bag
The Original, EM3ev Triangle Pack
EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack With Bag
We now have a new hard-case version of the 14s6p triangle battery pack with Smart BMS and power switch. The Smart BMS allows the cell group voltage, temperature and battery capacity percentage to be monitored via an Android app through a Bluetooth connection. The Smart BMS will balance the cells even at a 90% charge.
See the image for the hard-case dimensions. The battery includes the triangle bag. Please add 1.5cm to 2cm on each face to allow for the triangle bag’s padding.
EM3ev were 1 of the originators of the Triangle battery for Ebikes. We’ve been building triangle packs for at least 5 years and during that time, we have learnt a thing or 2, about not only triangle battery packs, but battery pack construction in general. We build our Triangle Packs using Samsung and LG Chem cells. Details of the performance to expect and our recommendations are detailed in the table further down this listing.
Combined with our custom EM3ev triangle bags, even a small frame, possibly even a full suspension frame, can accommodate our compact triangle pack within the triangle of the frame. The battery weight (spec. dependent, approx. 4.2-4.5kg) when located within the frame triangle, is barely noticed. So, if you need compact size and high power, the 25R or 30Q are the best choices. If you also want to have the highest possible capacity, combined with high power, the 30Q pack is the best choice. We offer various chargers as optional extras. Our EM3ev triangle bag is included at no additional cost.
EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack Cell Specs
We offer various Samsung, Panasonic and LG cell types, in addition to the standard ICR18650-22 (NCM cell, 3C rated, approximately 2.1Ah ) cell. These new cell types are the High Energy INR18650-33G (NCA Cell, 3C Max rated cell, with approx. 3.1Ah nominal Capacity) Panasonic PF (NCA 2C recommended Max, 3C Max burst current ~2.85Ah), Panasonic GA (NCA, 3C Max, ~3.4Ah) and LG MJ1 (NCA, 3C Max, ~3.40Ah). There is also the High Power cells, the INR18650-25R and INR18650-30Q. These are NCA type cells, ~8C rated with Capacity of approximately 2.45Ah (25R) and ~5C rated and capacity of 2.95Ah for the 30Q cell.
Regardless of the cell type used, the dimensions of the pack are unchanged.
Specification for Each Variant of the EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack:
|High Energy-PF||50.4V 17.1Ah||862Whrs||~34A||~51A||4.5kg|
|High Energy-33G||50.4V 18.6Ah||937Whrs||~28A||~37A||4.5kg|
|High Power-25R||50.4V 14.7Ah||741Whrs||~40A||~55A||5kg|
|High Power-30Q||50.4V 17.7Ah||892Whrs||~40A||~55A||5.2kg|
|High Power-MJ1||50.4V 20.4Ah||1028Whrs||~31A||~41A||5.2kg|
|High Energy-35E||50.4V 20.4Ah||1028Whrs||~31A||~41A||5.2kg|
|High Energy-GA||50.4V 20.4Ah||1028Whrs||~31A||~41A||5.2kg|
Please note we recommend a max of no more than 50A for the Smart BMS. The trip current is set just above 60A.
Our Small Triangle Pack (14S6P) uses a robust and reliable 14S 40A Li-ion type BMS. A pre-charge, as with all our packs, is fitted as standard (XT90-S). This is a must have feature with these High Discharge Battery Packs in our experience. A pre-charge will help to avoid issues with connectors and the electronic components in the battery and motor controller. The cells within the pack are bonded together using a special RTV. This RTV offers high insulation resistance, it is flexible, but also very strong. All signal cables are terminated via a PPTC (thermal fuse), to protect against a short. Even a dead short on the BMS Signal wires will not cause a hazardous situation
Please note that when a battery is ordered with a kit, we will make the controller to battery connections plug and play including Pre-Charge. We will supply a matching tail. This should be linked to your existing controller supply.
EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack With Bag Features:
- Tightly packed triangle layout, with lots of protection to avoid damage. Heavy Duty Rubberised Heat-Shrink provides a tough and durable finish.
- We use 14S (50.4V, based on 143.6V), not 13S (46.8V nominal, based on 13 3.6V), so that means a working voltage of over 48V most of the time and it also means that you’re getting that much more capacity than you would have had with an equivalent 13S Pack (7.7% additional capacity versus a 13S equivalent).
- Every cell in the pack is fused (just like almost all of the batteries we supply). We have been designing and manufacturing (in-house) our own battery terminations for several years already. Cell level fusing, means that in the event of an internal short circuit in the battery (which the BMS cannot protect against), then all that will happen is that some sacrificial links will safely open, preventing any of the cells or cabling from overheating and becoming dangerous. CNC spot welding ensures consistent weld quality and weld position. Safe by design!
EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack With Bag Specification:
- Nominal Voltage of 50.4V, assuming 3.6V nominal cell voltage. NCM/NCA cells are not 3.7V nominal as some seem to think and claim.
- Cycle Life estimated at 500-700 cycles (to 80% Retained) with 100% Charge and 100% discharge cycles. Cycle life is extended (possibly doubled) by charging to 90% and limiting discharge to 90%. We make it easy to control the Charge voltage with our switching charger. To accurately limit the discharge, the Cycle Analyst is a great tool. Using continuous High Discharge Rates, higher than the recommended levels, will cause cell heating and can shorten cycle life.
- Charge Voltage of 58.8V for 100% charge, 57.4V for 90% Charge (our 58.8V 5A NCM charger include a switch to charge to 100% and 90%). The Satiator charger allows charging to any SOC. Our small 58.8V 2A charger are very reliable and cost effective, but be aware that charging takes longer with just a 2A charge rate.
- Dimensions: ~81mm thick 331m long, 214mm high (detailed dimensions shown in additional images). Please add 1.5cm to 2cm on each face to allow for the triangle bag’s padding.
Lead-Times For Battery Pack
If we don’t have the battery pack already built in stock, the lead time is approx. 5 to 7 working days for us to build one once the order has been placed. We have streamlined our building process and the lead time is now 3 to 4 working days.
reviews for EM3ev 52V (14S6P) Hard-Case Triangle Ebike Battery Pack With Bag
I bought a New BBSHD and installed it on my Fat bike. Everything went as planned and the internet made it easy. When it came time to order a battery, I agonized over what to buy. I researched every possibility of type, model and price. I decided to got with the PF small triangle pack. I received it and I could not be more pleased. Everything from the bag, to the new hard case, and the bluetooth app that comes with it. I am very happy with my purchase and know now I made the right choice.
I converted a Surly Wednesday into an fat ebike… This battery just barely fits into the “Small” size frame with the included bag… With some customized programming to my Luna Ludicrous BBSHD, I’m now getting 80 miles on a rolling hills/pavement with a 90% charge… Couldn’t be happier with the customer service and this battery!
Only logged in customers who have purchased this product may leave a review.
How to convert a bike to electric power | Electric bike conversion kits explained
The best electric bike conversion kits will enable you to add a motor to your existing bike simply and relatively cheaply – at least compared to the price of buying a whole new electric bike.
There are an increasing number of ebike conversion kits out there, and they’re getting more sophisticated and easier to install on your bike, making for a practical alternative to a new purpose-built electric bike. An electric bike conversion kit will include the motor to drive you along and the battery to power it. It also needs to include the apparatus to control the power output level. This usually takes the form of a bar-mounted display.
In addition, a kit will include sensors to detect how fast you’re travelling and your level of pedal input to ensure the power supplied matches your needs. We’ve tested a few electric bike conversion kits here at BikeRadar, but there are lots more we’re yet to try. A full test of the best electric bike conversion kits is in the works – stay tuned. If you want a more detailed explanation of the different types of kit available and things to consider when purchasing an electric bike conversion kit, then head to our explainer further down the page.
Best electric bike conversion kits 2022: our picks
Swytch electric bike conversion kit
Swytch says its electric bike conversion kit can convert any bike into an electric bike. Stan Portus / Our Media
- Pros: Very compact; easy to install; variety of range options
- Cons: 100mm threaded front axle only; not compatible with thru-axles
London-based Swytch makes a conversion kit that, it says, is the lightest in the world at 3kg total weight. It can convert any bike into an ebike.
The kit includes a 40Nm brushless hub-based motor that comes pre-laced into a replacement front wheel. The lithium-ion battery pack connects to your handlebars and also acts as the system controller and LCD display.
There’s a crank-mounted cadence sensor, and that’s all you need to fit to your bike to get going.
There’s a Brompton-specific kit available too, with an adaptor for the Brompton’s front luggage mount.
Depending on the range you want, there are three sizes of battery pack available, which provide a claimed range of 35km, 50km or 100km.
Swytch has recently unveiled an even more compact kit with a.sized battery that weighs just 700g and, Swytch says, gives 15km of range.
Cytronex electric bike conversion kit
Cytronex makes electric bike conversion kits for Bromptons, as well as standard bikes. Russell Burton / Immediate Media
- Pros: Clever sensor tech; decent range
- Cons: Not much onboard info on battery level and range
Weighing between 3.2kg and 3.6kg, the Cytronex ebike conversion kit is another front-wheel conversion to house a hub motor, but in this case, the battery is designed to fit in a standard bottle cage.
We tested the kit on a Cannondale Quick hybrid and reckon that conversion takes around 30 minutes. The charge level is displayed via LEDs on the battery, which also houses the system controller. We got up to an impressive 48 miles on a charge.
We’ve also tested the kit on a Brompton P Line lightweight folder, where the total weight undercut the C Line-based Brompton Electric. Fit it to a C Line and it’s also cheaper than the Brompton Electric.
Electric bike conversion kits: different types explained
Electric bike conversion kits come in styles to suit all types of bike. Russell Burton / Immediate Media
There are a number of ways to electrify your existing bike for assistance up those hills: you can fit a powered wheel, either front or rear; you can attach a drive unit to the bottom bracket; you can fit a motor above the rear wheel and drive it via friction; or, most sneakily, you can conceal a motor in the seatpost.
Whether you ride a hybrid, mountain bike, road bike or even a folder, tourer or gravel bike, it should be possible to convert your bike.
Many can even be fitted by a competent home mechanic if you’re feeling handy and have an afternoon spare.
So, what are your options? Let’s take a look at the different ways to convert your non-assisted bike into an electric bike.
Powered ebike wheels
The Swytch is a good example of a readily available universal electric bike conversion kit that uses a motor at the front hub. Swytch
Fitting a powered ebike wheel is probably the most practical option for many people.
A powered ebike wheel is built around a special hub that contains a motor. This is usually powered by a separate battery.
This sounds simple, but the main downside is that it adds rotating mass to your bike, which feels harder to accelerate than non-rotating mass.
There’s a steady stream of front- and rear-wheel conversion kits on Amazon and eBay, all looking suspiciously similar, priced from around £150 and with names you’ve probably never heard of.
Be wary of systems controlled by a throttle (also called ‘twist-and-go’) though. Legally, they’re classified as electric motorcycles rather than ebikes, and need to be taxed and insured. Take a look at our guide to ebike laws for more information.
Rear-mounted friction drive ebike conversion kit
Readers of a certain age may remember earlier incarnations of these in the 1980s/90s: a box that sits on your rear wheel and powers it via friction with a rubber flywheel driven by a motor.
The idea hasn’t gone away, and lives on in devices such as the Rubbee, which promises bolt-on electric assistance for nearly any bike.
Rubbee’s base model has a claimed weight of just 2.8kg, with a 16km range that can be extended up to 48km with the top-spec, 4kg version.
It works with any wheel diameter between 16in and 29in, has an integrated carrying handle and clips on and off your seatpost. start from €579.
Concealed ebike conversion kit
The Vivax Assist hid a motor in the seat tube of the frame and applied power directly to the axle of the crank. Vivax
Now we come to the low-key way to do it – hiding a motor inside your bike so no one knows it’s there.
The Vivax Assist was the best-known device for doing this, although the company has now ceased trading. It’s the system that was used by Belgian cyclocross pro Femke Van den Driessche in 2016 to power her way to victory in her home championships. She was found out at a subsequent race, got a six-year ban and quit racing.
Vivax Assist may be no more, but we reckon this idea still has legs – at least for the budding cyclocross cheat.
Mid-drive ebike conversion kit
eBay and Amazon are awash with mid-drive motor electric bike conversion kits like this one from TongSheng. TongSheng
Many commercially available ebikes are powered with motors mounted around the bottom bracket, near the pedals.
These have the advantage of placing the weight low down on the bike, making it more stable.
This isn’t just a ready-made option though – you can also buy aftermarket conversion kits with mid-drive units.
Bafang is a brand that is increasingly focusing on complete ebikes, but it also offers a mid-drive conversion kit on Amazon, as well as wheel hub motors.
Priced from £360, Bafang says the conversion is easy to install using only a few tools to remove the bottom bracket and fit the drive on the front of the down tube.
As above, be careful of throttle-controlled kits that won’t pass the UK ebike regulations and will legally be considered a moped.
You’ll find other mid-motor systems on Amazon too, such as that from TongSheng, which is claimed to fit 95 per cent of standard bike frames and be 30 per cent lighter than a Bafang unit.
It uses a torque sensor, so should fall within the ebike regulations, and is priced from around £350 – although that doesn’t include a battery.
German brand Pendix has a mid-drive system priced from €999 to €2,190 that weighs from 5.4kg for a 28km range. It replaces a BSA bottom bracket and can be fitted to folding bikes as well as a wide range of regular machines.
Folding ebike conversion kit
The Brompton electric conversion from Electric Concepts is one of many kits available to electrify an existing Brompton. Electric Concepts
What can you do if you’ve got a folding bike and want to join the electric revolution?
Well there’s good news if you’ve got a Brompton – a number of ebike conversion kits are available. They generally work with a powered hub in the front wheel and a battery carried in a bag mounted on the front.
As discussed above, Swytch and Cytronex can both be used to convert a Brompton. Swytch’s Brompton kit is priced at £999, although discounts of up to 50 per cent are sometimes available on the site.
As with its other systems, there’s a front wheel hub motor, a clip-on power pack and a bottom bracket torque sensor. Quoted range is up to 50km.
Swytch will also build wheels for folders with other wheel sizes and different fork blade widths, such as Dahon’s models.
Are electric bike conversion kits legal?
If your electric bike uses a throttle, it is technically classed as a moped, and must be taxed and insured as such. Simon Bromley / Our Media
Most electric bike conversion kits are legal to fit to a bike, although the precise rules differ depending on where you live.
In most of the world, the motor needs to be limited to a maximum of 250 watts of continuous power output, unless the electric bike is only used on private land.
You also need to be pedalling for the motor to work – a throttle can only operate at low speeds and assistance needs to cut out once the speed exceeds 25kph. There may be a minimum age to ride an electric bike: in the UK it’s 14.
The rules are different in the US, where higher power outputs and higher speeds are usually legal, while Australia has some variants as well, so it’s worth checking that your electric bike conversion kit is legal where you live before purchasing.
Is converting an electric bike worth it?
An electric bike conversion kit is not cheap, so you want to be sure it’s going to work for you.
You need to have a candidate bike in decent condition to justify taking the kit route.
If you’re going to have to buy a bike to fit the kit to, or going to need to make a lot of repairs to your bike to make it roadworthy, the total cost is probably going to mean it’s not a lot cheaper than buying a complete electric bike.
You need to be confident you can fit the kit yourself as well. If you’re going to have to pay a shop to fit the motor or sort things out if the conversion goes wrong, your savings over purchasing a new electric bike may dwindle quickly.
It’s also worth noting that an electric bike conversion kit may affect your bike’s handling, particularly if there’s a heavy motor and battery mounted somewhere where the bike was not designed to carry it.
Drivetrain components may not be adequately beefed up for the extra power they need to transmit and may wear or break. Factors such as torque steer may be a problem, and cabling and sensors can be unsightly.
In contrast, if you buy a complete electric bike from a reputable brand, it will have been engineered around the motor and battery, and you’ll know what the finished product looks like.
Can you convert any bike into an electric bike?
There are designs of electric bike conversion kit that will work with pretty much any type of bike. Kits are available that are engineered specifically for certain bikes, such as the folding bike conversion kits we’ve talked about above.
A design such as the Rubbee should be mountable on most bikes. However, tyre wear may be an issue with a road bike with narrower tyres, and wet-weather grip between the motor’s drive wheel and the tyre may also be a problem.
But some kits, such as those that work with a specific bottom bracket configuration, may not fit on some bikes. An unusual wheel size may also limit available options, so it’s worth checking the compatibility of your planned solution before buying.
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