Battery Options. 36v ebike battery pack

Battery Options

Here at Grin we’ve been dealing with ebike batteries for a very long time during which we’ve offered over 100 variants of NiCad, NiMH, LiFePO4, LiPo, and Lithium-Ion packs in all kinds of voltages, geometries, and capacities. It’s been a love/hate relationship over those years, but the more recent mass production of 18650 lithium cells for high power consumer goods like power tools has shifted things to the love side, with ebike batteries that are cheaper, lighter, and with far longer life span than we could have ever wished for in the past. We’re happy to stock both frame mount and rear rack mounted batteries from 98 watt-hours to 1100 watt-hours in size to suite the needs of most electric bicycle conversions.

battery, options, ebike, pack

Battery Options

Grin’s 2020 battery offerings include a mix of flat rack and downtube style batteries made with Panasonic, LG, and Samsung cells to suite a wide variety of user needs. Each pack uses Anderson Powerpole connectors on the discharge lead and includes a robust BMS circuit for overcharge, over discharge, and overcurrent protection.

36v 19Ah / 52v 14.5Ah / 72v 9.5Ah

We have had downtube-mounted batteries made with quality cells using popular casings from Hailong and Reention. They are designed for mounting to the water bottle eyelets on your frame tubing, though you can get a much more secure and versatile frame attachment using our Double Bob or Triple Bob anchors.

We used to have the smaller Hailong-01 enclosure in 36V 16.5Ah (10s 5p) layouts suitable for 20-25A current setups, and the larger Hailong-03 enclosure in a 52V 16.5Ah (14s 5p) size for higher current and capacity, but we have now switched to only Reention Poly-DP casings for a standardized cradle, stronger casing, and more reliable connectors. For extra large capacity (1 KWhr), we have the Reention DP-9C casings in 36V 26.5Ah and 52V 20Ah formats. We also have downtube enclosures for the larger 21700 cell format and have these available in 36V 14.5Ah, 36V 19.5Ah, 52V 14.5Ah and 72V 9.5Ah options with Panasonics NCR21700A cells (same as used on Telsa 3), and also in a 72V 7.5Ah format using the very high power capable Samsung 40T cells.

These Downtube batteries all have a mounting cavity compatible with our Baserunner motor controller for slick and clean kit installation.

How to Choose a Pack

The very first consideration when choosing a battery pack is ensuring that it can handle the current draw of your motor controller. If you have a 40A motor controller, but your battery is only rated to deliver 25A max, then either the BMS circuit will shut off the battery at full throttle, or the battery will be stressed and have reduced cycle life. The converse, having a battery that has a higher current rating than what your controller will draw, is no problem at all. In fact, it can be quite beneficial.

The next consideration is ensuring that the battery is large enough for your required travel range; it’s no fun having a battery go flat before the end of your trip. In order to determine the range that you will get from a given battery, you need to know both the watt-hour capacity of the battery, and how much energy you use per kilometer. Sounds complicated? Not really. As a rule of thumb, most people riding an ebike at average speeds consume about 10 Wh/km from their battery, and this makes the math very easy. If you have a 400 watt-hour battery, you can expect a range of 40km. A 720 watt-hour battery? ~72km

Of course, if you go really fast or are pulling an extra load, then this mileage will be worse, like 12-15 wh/km. On the other hand, if you use the motor more sparingly, then you can easily stretch it down to 6-8 wh/km. The table below summarizes the expected range for these different example batteries under light, average, and heavy usage paradigms:

Range with Light Use Range with Typical Use Range with Heavy Use
3 Parallel LiGo (~300 Wh) 35-45 km 25-35 km 18-22 km
36V 14Ah Downtube (~500 Wh) 60-80km 45-55km 30-35 km
eZee Flat Pack(~700 Wh) 80-100km 60-80km 35-45 km
52V 16.5Ah Downtube(~850 Wh) 100-120 km 80-90 km 55-65 km

It makes very little difference whether you have a small geared motor, a large direct drive motor, or a mid-drive motor. The mileage and range figures for a given battery have to do with how you use the ebike, not which motor system is on the bike.

Tip: No one EVER regrets having too much battery capacity

The Case for Extra Capacity

Say you have a 12km trip to work and back, so to do the full 24km round trip you’ll need 240 watt-hours. A 36V 8Ah battery at 288 watt-hours should be a perfect choice no?

The answer is that, unless you are seriously budget or weight constrained, this would probably be a bad battery investment. It might fit the bill initially for your commuting needs, but then it doesn’t really leave any reserve if you need to run some errands on the way home or forget to charge it up one night etc. Even worse, as the battery ages over time, the capacity drops. After a year your 8Ah battery is now only 7Ah, it’s only barely able to do your daily commute, and the next year when it is just 6Ah you now need to carry the charger with you and top it up at work every day.

Most people find that once they have an ebike, they use it for all kinds of applications and trips outside of just commuting, and the ability to go 50 km on a charge opens up possibilities that wouldn’t have been possible otherwise. Plus, as the battery ages and declines in capacity, it still has more than enough range for your key commuting needs. Imagine if instead of getting an 8Ah pack, you purchased a 15Ah battery. Even if after 4-5 years it has lost 30% of its original capacity, that’s still over 10Ah and leaves plenty of reserve for your 24km commute.

Furthermore, if you have more capacity than required, then you also have the opportunity to do partial charging of the battery with a Satiator or similar device, so that instead of charging the pack to 100% to squeeze out every km, your standard charge is set to a lower 80 or 90% level. This can have a pronounced effect increasing both the cycle life and calendar life of a lithium battery by several fold.

And a final point is that a larger battery has a lower per cell stress during discharge since the current is shared among more parallel cells. Cells that are cycled at high discharge currents (1-2C) exhibit noticeably lower cycle life than those cycled at low currents

Parallel Connecting Batteries

One of the easiest ways to increase the current handling capability and range is to put two or more batteries in parallel. In general, with lithium batteries of the same nominal voltage, this is no problem. It is ok to mix old and new lithium batteries in parallel, or even batteries from different manufacturers and with different capacities, so long as they are the same voltage. We stock a parallel battery joining cable to facilitate connecting packs this way.

Where things can get a bit dicey is in charging batteries that are parallel connected. If you leave the batteries in parallel while charging, then the charger current will get shared between the batteries and you can be sure that they are always at the same charge level. However, that does mean one of the batteries will be getting charged through the discharge port. For single port BMS circuits, this is not a concern, but on dual port BMS boards (separate charging and discharging mosfets) there is no overcharge protection on the pack being charged from the discharge leads. This can present a safety risk if there is a cell anomaly in that pack.

Alternately, you can separate the batteries and charge each with its own charger and then connect them in parallel just for discharging. Just make sure that both packs are indeed fully charged, as you don’t want to connect them together when one pack is charged and the other is flat.

V or 48V?

We sell roughly equal numbers of 36V and 48V battery packs, and all of our conversion kits and controllers work fine with both 36V and 48V (or 52V) battery options. Just because 48V is a larger number, it does not mean that a 48V ebike is intrinsically better / more powerful / faster than a 36V ebike despite what the ill-informed internet will lead you to believe. However, it is true that a given motor will spin faster at a higher voltage, and usually higher speeds will correspond to more power consumption. For most of the stock hub motor kits that we offer, a 36V battery will result in a commuting speed of 30-35 kph, while wth a 48V battery will result in closer to 40-45 kph.

If you are upgrading or replacing an existing battery pack, it is always safe to replace it with a battery that has the same nominal voltage. If you have a 36V ebike setup that is not from us, and are looking to ‘upgrade’ to a 48V/52V pack, more often than not you can do this without damaging the existing electronics. That is because most 36V motor controllers use 60V rated mosfets and 63V rated capacitors, and so even a fully charged 52V battery will not exceed these values.

Series Connecting for 72V?

It is also possible in principle to series connect two 36V batteries to make a 72V setup, but the only battery we have that is intrinsically designed for this is our LiGo modules. With all other batteries, it is essential to use a pass diode across the output of each battery so that when one BMS circuit trips it does not get exposed to a large negative voltage. We have a special series battery cable with this diode built in available here.

When you series connect batteries, you want to make sure they are packs with identical capacities and specs. You also want to make sure that either your controller or Cycle Analyst low voltage cutoff is set such that the discharge stops as soon as one pack trips. Otherwise continuous current will continue to flow through the pass diode when you are running off just the one non-tripped battery, causing the diode to overheat and fail.

Battery Connectors

We like to use Anderson Powerpole connectors as the standard discharge plug on all of our ebike battery packs. These connectors are ingenious since they are genderless, allowing you to use the same plug both on both a load and source, and the connector design allows them to withstand the arc of inrush current when plugged into capacitive loads much better than bullet style plugs. For the charging port, we like to use the female 3-pin XLR plug standard. This is directly compatible with the Satiator charger, and the quality Neutrik XLR plugs are rated for a full 15 amps per pin allowing very Rapid charging. Unfortunately, this option is not available for many of the downtube battery enclosures. Originally we used the very common but low current DC 5.5 x 2.1 mm barrel plug, but have since updated to using the 3 pin connector from ST which is safer, supports higher currents (8A is no problem) and has a 3rd pin for battery temperature sensing.

Battery Shipping

The shipping of lithium batteries is a complicated endeavor that frustrates the logistics of supplying and supporting ebike conversions kits. After numerous incidents of early lithium batteries either smoking or catching fire in transit, the transportation industry as whole recognized that lithium packs could not be handled casually like regular cargo and greatly stepped up the regulatory framework governing the shipping of lithium battery packs. These rules are constantly evolving, but generally ebike batteries are treated as Class 9 Dangerous Goods. In order to ship a lithium battery (whether by ground or by air) very strict packaging and labeling requirements must be followed, the battery must generally have UN38.3 test certification, and the person doing the packing and shipping has to be trained and certified in the handling and shipping of dangerous goods. When you order a battery from us, there is an automatic Dangerous Goods handling fee that is added to the order, and your battery pack is shipped separately from the rest of the kit as dangerous goods cargo. Many shipping companies do not offer dangerous goods services and we may change the courier selection to one that can deliver to your area.

Where to Order

If none of our own battery offerings meet your needs, we can also highly recommend the knowledgeable folks at Batteryspace.com and EM3EV as alternate suppliers of lithium battery packs in a wide range of capacities, form factors, and voltages.

Ebike Battery New Invention, 36V, 48V, and 72V Ebike Battery

Ebike Battery New Invention, 36V, 48V, and 72V Ebike Battery– This Ebike Battery New Invention is going to blow your mind; because using this circuit you can make 36V, 48V, 72V, or even a higher voltage Ebike battery. And I am going to share with you every bit of information, it’s designing, Proteus simulation, soldering, and practical testing. I know you might be thinking; why have I connected 4 battery packs? Why not a single battery pack? Is it cost-effective? Well, you will get answers to all your questions. So, let me start by telling you why I needed to make this in the first place?

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Please Note: These are affiliate links. I may make a commission if you buy the components through these links. I would appreciate your support in this way!

Large battery packs like these are very expensive and for beginners, it’s hard to make a 36V or 48V, or 72V Ebike battery. Because connecting these so many lithium Ion Batteries in series and parallel combinations and then connecting them to a single BMS “Battery Management System” is the hardest job. I myself, when I built my first Trike Electric Scooter for performing some experiments; I used 4 Lead Acid batteries in series to get 48 volts. Of course, these were expensive and too heavy.

Anyhow, at that time this was the easiest solution that I could think of. Even with this easiest solution, the next issue which I faced was charging this 48V battery pack. So, I bought myself a 48V charger which is expensive and not easily available like 12V adaptors.

I ordered this online and then I had to wait for 3 days. Anyway, I performed all my experiments, first I started with a single Hoverboard BrushlessMotor, I successfully controlled it using a throttle handle and then using two 500Watts controllers I controlled two Brushless motors using the same throttle handle.

Next, I studied different Battery management system modules. And I built myself 3S and 4S Lithium Ion Battery Packs as these were easy to start withand moreover at that time I only needed 3S and 4S battery packs.

You can read my article on how to make 3S and 4S lithium Ion Battery packs, I have pretty much explained everything the connections diagram, welding using my designed spot welding machine and I have also explained how to do soldering if in case you don’t have a spot welding machine. So, if you are just starting with Lithium Ion battery packs then you should read my previous articles.

Anyway, after practicing for a while; finally, I was ready to make a 4S lithium Ion Battery pack for my Racing Drone as I was tired of using Lipo batteries. Lipo Batteries could hardly give me 5 to 6 minutes of flight time while my designed 4S lithium Ion battery pack gave me 30 minutes of flight time.

Based on my previous knowledge and experience, I built this 48V battery pack. This is cost-effective and can be easily built by anyone, and this 48V battery pack can be charged using a 12V adopter or a solar panel.

If you make a large 48V battery pack like this then you will need a 13S BMSwhich is available in the range of 3000 to 4200Rs on Pakistani online stores and it’s also quite expensive on Amazon. While on the other hand 3S and 4S BMSmodules are quite cheap. I am going to need four3S BMS modules which will cost me only 1600Rs or 7.17 USD. So, it will save me 2600Rs. And if you purchase these 3S BMS modules on Amazon then it will save you 50USD. Even if you search for the cheapest 13S BMS modulestill you will be saving yourself a lot of money.

So, using these 3S BMS modules I built myself these 3S Lithium Ion Battery Packs. You can read my article on how to make 3S and 4S lithium Ion Battery packs using 3S and 4S BMS modules. Anyway, now I can connect these 4 battery packs in Series to get 48 volts.

For this I designed this Semi-automatic control circuit. Its job is to connect all these batteries in series when needed to power up the Electric Bike or Electric Scooter and to charge the battery packs using a low-cost 12V adaptor. You don’t need a 50V or a high volt charger. A 12V and 3 to 4 amps adaptor is more than enough or if you want you can also use a solar panel. Now, you might be thinking how am I charging a 48V battery pack with a 12V adaptor? Well, it’s simple let me explain this by connecting all the 4 battery packs.

I have designed this circuit in a way that when this switch is OFF, all the batteries are connected in Series, and on the output, I get 48 volts.

And when I turn on this switch then all the batteries are connected in parallel. Now, I can use my 12V adaptor or a solar panel to charge all the batteries. At the same time, you can either charge the batteries or use them to power up the Ebike. This limitation is on the BMS side, I have already explained this in my previous video and article.

Anyway, this is a fully working prototype model. If you don’t like using the relays, then you can use power MOSFETs to implement the same concept. This circuit works with 1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, 6s, 7s, 8s, 9s, 10s, 11s, 12s, 13s, 14s, and so on. It depends on you how much voltage you need on the output.

When it comes to troubleshooting of this 48V battery pack it’s very easy. You can individually check each battery pack and if there is something wrong you can replace that battery pack with a new one or you can simply replace the faulty cell and you are good to go.

While on the other hand if one or more cells are damaged in a large battery pack then you will need to de-solder all the cells to find the faulty cells, which is really a tedious job.

Now, you know the advantages of this new 48V Ebike battery system, and now I am going to explain its simulation, PCB designing using Altium Designer, Online order placement on JLCPCB, Soldering, and practical testing. So, first, let’s start with the simulation.

V Battery Pack Proteus Simulation:

Before designing the PCB, I designed this simulation in Proteus. Let me play this simulation.

when the button is OFF the circuit is completely dead and on the output it gives 48 volts, right now you can see 44.4 volts but when the batteries are completely charged you will see 48 volts, I already demonstrated this. So, when the button is OFF the circuit consumes no electricity and you get full output as all the battery packs are connected in series.

When the switch is turned ON, all the batteries are connected in parallel and on the output you will see 11.1 volts. This voltage may vary depending on how much charge is available. Anyway, when the switch is ON simply connect your 12V adapter or solar panel to charge all the 4 lithium ion battery packs. So, after successfully implementing this idea in Proteus, then I switched over to Altium Designer for designing the PCB.

V Battery Pack PCB designing in Altium Designer:

Before creating the schematic and designing the PCB in Altium Designer, first I started off by searching the components on the world’s fastest components search engine Octopart. I selected the desired components with footprint models and used them for creating the schematic as per the simulation. I already have a very detailed video on how to make a schematic and PCB using Altium Designer.Anyway, then I switched over to the PCB designing document, I defined the PCB board size and re-arranged all the components.

Using Altium Designer you can automatically route all the wires. But I did it manually. I increased the width of the wires and I also applied solder to the top and bottom traces to increase the current carrying capacity as most of the current will be following through these copper traces.

I have used a total of six XT60 connectors. These 4 connectors on the bottom side are used to connect the four battery packs. From the middle one, we get the output to power up the Electric bike or Electric Scooter. And the one on the top is used to charge all the four battery packs using a 12V adaptor.

Finally, before generating the Gerber files, I activated the 3D layout mode by clicking on number 3 on the keyboard. I double checked all the connections and once satisfied. I again activated the 2D layout mode by clicking on number 2 on the keyboard. Finally, I was ready to generate the Gerber files.

Generate Gerber Files using Altium Designer:

For this click on the file menu and then go to Fabrication Outputs and click on the Gerber Files.

On the units tab select Inches and on the Format tab select 2:3.

Then click on the Layers tab, by default no layers are selected, so click on the Plot Layers and select Used On.

Then click on the Drill Drawing tab and select Plot all used drill pairs in both sections.

Finally, click on the Ok button to generate the Gerber files.

Next, you will also need to generate the NC drill files. For this go to the File Menu and then to Fabrication Outputs and select NC Drill Files.

Select inches and Format as 2:3. Then click on the OK button to generate the NC Drill Files.

Now, I have the PCB Gerber files and the NC Drill Files. Right click on the project name and select explore this will open the project folder.

Open the Project Outputs folder, now, these are the output files that we need to send to the PCB manufacturing company.

Convert your Project Outputs folder to WinRAR before you send it to the PCB manufacturing company. As you can see in the image below.

Online Order Placement on JLCPCB:

For the Online order placement I am going to open the JLCPCB official website.They offer extremely cheap prices, you only need to pay 2 dollars for 1 and 2 layers PCBs of 100x100mm size.

For the same price, you can also order 4 and 6 layers PCBs of 50x50mm size. 5 PCBs for only 2 dollars it’s quite affordable. Besides this JLCPCB also offers PCB Assembly and 3D Printing Services. Anyway, drag and drop the PCB Gerber files WinRAR folder or Click on the Add Gerber File Button.

It automatically detects the number of layers and the board dimensions. Select the number of PCBs you want to order, you can change other details as per your requirement, in my case I am going to change the PCB color and everything else I will leave to their default values.Now, I am going to click on Save to Cart button.

These are the PCBs I received from JLCPCB. As you can see the quality is really great. The silkscreen is quite clear and the Black Solder mask looks amazing.

The components placement and soldering:

For the components placement and soldering watch the video tutorial on my YouTube channel Electronic Clinic or click on the link given at the end of this article. For the soldering I used the ATETool AE689 Soldering Station.

After completing the soldering, I double-checked all the connections using my Andonstar digital microscope. Anyway, you can see I am done with the soldering and as you can see I have also soldered all the 6 XT60 connectors. Now, I am going to connect a 12V adaptor to check if all the relays are working. Great! by turning ON and turning OFF the switch I am able to control all the relays.

Practical Testing:

The 500 watts Brushless DC motor controllers wiring I have already explained in my previous article on the Trike Electric Scooter. I am using the same 500 watts controllers, the same throttle handle, and the same Hoverboard motors. The only difference is, this time I am using a 48V Lithium Ion Battery Pack. So, let’s go ahead turn on the switch, and start controlling the motors.

This is simply amazing. I just built myself the cheapest 48V battery pack using low-cost 3S BMS modules. And I can charge this 48V battery pack using a 12V adaptor or a Solar Panel. And one more thing, if you want more current and more backup time then you can connect multiple lithium Ion batteries in parallel. So, that’s all for now.

Li-Ion Ebike Battery Charge Charts

Whats an 80% charge on a 48v battery? on a 36v? 52v? These charts give answers to questions like these on all common ebike battery voltages.

Remember, ALL numeric charts show ballpark values that may be numerically correct, but no generic chart can match your individual cell characteristics, your pack’s age or its chemistry. Bottom line: imperfect charts like this are still good baseline references. Use these and teach yourself how to read the voltage gauge on your display screen.

Quite some time ago, I produced a series of charge status charts for a variety of common lithium-ion battery voltages. They’ve become a fairly common link to help folks out on various groups who use these battery voltages in their ebikes.

I built them using Google Sheets, so they are not web pages, which I suppose has kept them from being widely linked in search engine results when people are looking at such things.

Here for the first time are direct links to the charts on a normal web page.

battery, options, ebike, pack

Volt (10S) Battery Charge Chart

The first link is to the lowest voltage: 36v. Generally this is the lowest voltage you will find on a modern, commercial ebike. Note that its called ’36 volt’ but really that is the ‘nominal’ value. A 36v battery is actually fully charged when it is at 42.0 volts.

Volt (13S) Battery Charge Chart

The next common size is 48v. These batteries are fully charged at 54.6 volts.

Volt (14S) Battery Charge Chart

The next battery voltage is 52v and very common. 52v batteries will work on systems designed for 48v, and why is easier to understand when you become aware that a ’48v’ battery really tops out at over 54 volts. A ’52v’ battery tops out at 58.8v, so it essentially lets you use a 48v system for a longer time at higher voltage levels that it is already designed to utilize.

Volt (16S) Battery Charge Chart

With a 100% charge voltage of 67.2 volts, when you have one of these you are getting into high voltage territory

Replacement Electric Bike Batteries Guide

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A good e-bike battery should last for hundreds of cycles. With average use, this means several years. Eventually, electric bike batteries need to be replaced as their life cycle comes to an end.

You can tell when a battery is nearing the end of its life when it does not provide you with much range. Some high-quality batteries that come on the top e-bikes such as a Bosch battery have a battery management system (BMS) integrated into the battery that actually tells you the current capacity and also how many charge cycles it has gone through.

But no matter what type of battery you have you’ll sooner or later be asking yourself the all-important question: how can I replace my e-bike battery?

Down below Electric Bike Report dives into this question and more in greater detail.

Are E-bike Batteries Interchangeable?

In general, the answer is no – you should only replace a battery with one that comes from the same manufacturer and is of exactly the same spec.

The reason is that the original e-bike or kit manufacturer has the responsibility to ensure that the battery pack, charger, and e-bike all work safely together, and using a ‘non-original’ replacement pack potentially introduces all sorts of uncontrolled risks.

It’s a little more complicated than this in some situations. For example, some Bosch batteries of different capacities are explicitly made to be interchangeable and there will be many instances where an original supplier and/or manufacturer of the e-bike cannot be traced or has gone out of business – in such cases we look at your options below.

As an important side note: you should always, if possible, use a charger that comes from the original manufacturer too. The one that comes with your battery should sync up well and not overload the battery. Pairing your battery with a different charger adds in risk of malfunction during charging.

Let’s first look at the basics of getting a replacement battery for your e-bike, then we will look at some of the major manufacturers of e-bike batteries and some of the main e-bike manufacturers to see which common battery types are still replaceable. Let’s consider the options for replacement in terms of desirability.

Where Should I Go to Get a Replacement E-Bike Battery?

On this last point it may help to note that there are a couple of manufacturing standards for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries used in e-bikes. Although it’s not a legal requirement, it may be that one of the standards is actually marked on the battery itself.

The standards are BS EN 50604‑1 and UN38.3, the latter required for lithium-ion battery transport by air, sea or land. Just because these standards are not marked on a battery doesn’t mean it does not comply with them – but it is a reassuring sign if a battery does bear one or both of these marks.

Note that using a replacement battery that does not come from the original manufacturer (whether a dealer is involved or not) may void the warranty of your electric bike or kit. Check with the e-bike or kit company to understand what their policy is regarding the use of aftermarket replacement batteries.

Replacement Batteries from Original Manufacturers

Bosch E-Bike Batteries

Only Bosch manufactured batteries will be used on any new Bosch e-bike – this has always been the case and so it makes advice on interchangeability a little more straightforward than with the likes of Shimano and Brose who have both allowed the use of third party batteries with their mid-drive motor systems.

There have been four basic designs made by Bosch over the years (good online overview here):

  • Rack mounted batteries: PowerPack in 300, 400, and 500 Wh versions which are all interchangeable with each other.
  • Down tube mounted batteries: PowerPack in 300, 400, and 500 Wh versions, current versions of which are all interchangeable with each other.
  • Frame integrated batteries: PowerTubes in 400, 500, and 625Wh versions, with the 400 and 500 units being interchangeable with each other. The 625Wh may be retrofittable but it needs a compatible frame with a big enough space to house it (400 and 500 units are the same physical dimensions but 625 is bigger). 500 and 625 Wh units are used on the Dual Battery system to give a capacity up to 1250Wh.
  • Frame Integrated ‘Smart’ Option batteries: This is a new 750Wh option for 2022 and will be only compatible with 2022 e-bikes that feature the Bosch ‘Smart’ system and will not be compatible with other Bosch e-bikes that are ‘non-Smart’. Similarly, other types of PowerTube batteries (400, 500, and 625Wh versions) will not be compatible with e-bikes featuring Bosch’s ‘Smart’ system.

Some third-party batteries compatible with Bosch systems are available as detailed in the section below.

There are some suppliers of batteries that will fit older models, in some cases dating back to 2011 when the Bosch e-bikes first entered the market, for example, The Holland Bike Shop in Europe sells some batteries compatible with much older Bosch-powered models.

Shimano E-Bike Batteries

Shimano produces its own brand batteries for use on their systems, but you may also find new e-bikes powered by Shimano motor systems with batteries manufactured by their licensed partners Darfon and SMP. These third party batteries are not interchangeable with any Shimano batteries.

Shimano’s current range includes rack-mounted, downtube-mounted and frame-integrated batteries from 418Wh to 630Wh. You can see a brief overview with detailed links to each battery on offer here.

It’s important to note that each battery model has a limited number of specific battery mounts it will work with, so it is important to replace an old battery with one that is compatible with the mount on your e-bike. You can check out detailed compatibility info here and here.

Shimano says that ‘the oldest current battery we have is the BT-E6000 and the corresponding battery mount BM-E6000. These are compatible with all five of our current drive units (DU-EP8/E8000/E7000/E6100/E5000), but not earlier systems. For reference, DU-E8000 is the oldest in that list – it was introduced in 2016.’

Brose E-Bike Batteries

The only battery listed on Brose’s own website is a 630Wh frame-integrated option.

However, Brose systems are widely used by other manufacturers who also spec own-brand or third-party batteries. These include the likes of the widely respected battery manufacturer BMZ and well-known brands like Scott and BULLS.

For example, Specialized’s ‘full power’ range use Brose-based mid drives and a range of their own brand frame-integrated batteries. Although information on interchangeability is scarce, a Specialized FAQ page, in response to the question ‘Can I increase range by using the 604Wh aftermarket battery in any Turbo Vado/Como?’ says yes, all Vado batteries are cross-compatible as long as you are running the latest firmware (by implication so are Como and Turbo full power batteries are cross-compatible too).

The above appears only to address compatibility on current Specialized models and battery availability for older models appears a bit more complex with lots of debate online over the matter.

The fact that the latest Specialized e-bike batteries contain a Bluetooth chip to communicate with the latest Mission Control App certainly suggest both backward compatibility and availability of third party batteries will be very limited. Current e-bike batteries available from Specialized can be found here.

Yamaha E-Bike Batteries

Yamaha has integrated, rack-mounted and frame-mounted options ranging between 400Wh and 600Wh but information on backward compatibility is rather hard to find. Their systems appear on Haibike models and in the US on their own brand models too.

Giant use Yamaha motor systems but apparently have their own brand of battery – the EnergyPak range. The standard EnergyPak comes in rack-mounted and frame-integrated options whilst the Smart Compact variant allows for faster charging.

Finally, there is the Giant EnergyPak Plus, for use with the Smart Compact – a range extender style battery that fits onto the frame and effectively increases the capacity of the main Plus battery.

Giant’s Service web page states that there are EnergyPaks with 300, 360, 400, 500 and 625Wh capacities and also states ‘Giant EnergyPaks are interchangeable’.

Fazua E-Bike Batteries

This lightweight German-made system uses a frame-integrated 250Wh design and there have been two types of battery, Battery 250 and Battery 250X, the latter having the ability to be switched on and off remotely.

The latest Fazua Evation 250X battery is compatible with all Fazua electric bikes from 2019-22.

GRIN and Cytronex E-bike Kit Batteries

Canada’s GRIN is a true expert in producing a wide variety of e-bike kits. Whilst they do several designs of batteries, one of their best options from a replaceability point of view is their own brand LiGo batteries.

LiGo batteries are very unusual in being modular so that you can easily connect together as many as you like to increase or decrease battery capacity at will. They are particularly suitable for lightweight and folding bikes (I use them on a GRIN Brompton kit) and also for those who want to air travel with e-bikes as the individual battery units are only 98Wh and so are generally allowed on passenger aircraft (disconnect them from each other for travel and reconnect them on landing to make a useful e-bike battery).

The design has been around for several years and is backward compatible.

The UK’s Cytronex produces both European and US spec lightweight kits which use a unique own-design of ‘bottle battery’.

Cytronex says all their lithium bottles are compatible forwards and backward from the first version in 2017. They have different firmware for the new Bluetooth variant but both this and the non-Bluetooth version allow you to use the new 2-way – 5 level Boost Button or the previous one-way 3 level button.

In fact, if you have old and new kits on two bikes you can switch the bottle between both and it will recognize the two different button types automatically.

E-bike Manufacturers Own Brand Batteries

There are hundreds of e-bike manufacturers in the more budget space so it’s way beyond the scope of this guide to cover the options for each one; rather we’ll take a look at a couple of the market leaders.

Rad Power Bikes E-Bike Batteries

Rad Power Bikes first started producing e-bikes for the North American market in 2015 and now claims to be the US market leader. Their website lists several replacement batteries and their current lineup of bikes uses one of two battery designs.

There is the External Battery Pack (with the option for the smaller pack specific to the RadMission) which is compatible with all 2018 and newer model ebikes except the RadRover 6 Plus and RadCity 5 Plus, which use the Semi-Integrated Battery Pack.

battery, options, ebike, pack

Rad Power Bikes does offer legacy options for bikes older than that 2018 ‘cutoff’ and although some of these legacy batteries are currently out of stock Rad says they have plans to restock them.

The battery packs are consistent across their main sales areas of Canada, US and Europe.

The Rad Power website has a great filter system so you can track down the compatibility of what batteries are in stock against all current and previous models, right back to the original 2015 RadRover. All e-bike manufacturers’ websites should provide this service!

Pedego E-Bike Batteries

A longstanding US manufacturer with a clear set of battery specs for current models here. However, there doesn’t appear to be any info about legacy batteries or backward compatibility.

Interestingly, and it seems uniquely amongst the mainstream manufacturers, Pedego have recently introduced a serviceable battery (pictured above) – designed to be easily maintained at the local Pedego store. It features a rear light, brake light and indicators to boot.

Batteries for Out-Dated Motor Systems

There are a number of older motor and battery systems that are either not used or little used these days but there are still some suppliers out there who may be able to help out and if you are in this position a bit of internet research might just turn something up. Let’s take a look at a couple of examples.

BionX E-Bike Batteries

BionX operated between 1998 and 2018 and were once one of the leading e-bike system manufacturers in North America, with the likes of Trek and Kalkhoff using their systems.

There are still limited stocks of spare parts available here and there, including batteries, for example on this Ohm webpage.

Heinzmann E-Bike Batteries

German company Heinzmann had a great reputation for quality and produced the now obsolete Classic system and the newer Direct Power system. At various times both were available as kits or fitted to off-the-peg e-bikes.

In the UK Electric Vehicle Solutions are the main stockist of complete Direct Power kits and of spare parts for the Classic system.

What About Non-removable Frame Integrated Batteries?

A relatively small number of e-bike batteries are incorporated into the frame and not designed to be removed by the rider – they must be charged on the bike. Whilst perhaps inconvenient for some, the system has the benefit of a sleeker and simpler design and keeps the battery cells well-protected.

The Ebikemotion X35 system is one example of the most common lightweight systems out there to feature a frame-enclosed battery.

When it comes to replacing these batteries, to be clear, our official advice is that this is a job for the dealer, or expert shops to do only.

DIY in this area can get tricky in a hurry. Looking into service options to replace batteries in an integrated system is something to consider before purchasing the bike.

Third-Party Replacement E-Bike Batteries

For some older batteries – or even some current ones – there may be manufacturers other than the so-called OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) who made the original batteries. These third-party companies are not recognized by the original e-bike manufacturers so if possible it is always best to go back to your dealer or the manufacturer directly to source an original battery.

However, third-party batteries may be a solution where no original batteries appear to be available.

There are a growing number of companies that provide third-party batteries and here we take a look at a couple of the bigger operations.

Please note that on e-bikes that are still in their warranty period, replacing the battery with one from a third-party manufacturer will most likely void the warranty.

FTH Power has a good amount of experience in the electronics business and has diagnostics and assembly capabilities. They look to have good stocks of popular far eastern battery brands such as Reention (used by the likes of Juiced and Surface 604) and Hailong. They also have this handy battery/model finder to see if they have batteries for your particular model of e-bike.

Third-party battery provision (and recelling services) appear to be bigger business in mainland northern Europe than in the U.S. It makes sense, this is where e-bikes have been around much longer and where the average value of e-bikes is higher. The need to keep older bikes going longer is greater. For example, Heskon is a major supplier of replacement batteries to dealers and Fiets Accu Revisie is the part of Heskon that sells direct to customers.

The UK’s Electric Transport Shop network offers battery diagnosis (refundable against a replacement battery or recell if required). The ETS says they also have stocks of Battery Management System chips that can be used on certain packs, usually on older e-bikes.

The ETS also says ‘There are so many shapes of e-bike batteries now that we cannot guarantee that we have cell packs to fit them all and it is usually cheaper to buy a factory-built replacement than to hand-build a replacement pack in the UK so we usually recommend buying a battery from the original supplier if the diagnosis proves that’s what is needed. If their supplier is no longer available to supply a replacement pack in this instance we will help people find a suitable replacement or as a last resort we will offer to wire in an alternative pack which may be in a different position on the bike.’

What Should I Do With My Old E-bike Battery?

If at all possible the ideal solution is to take it back to the dealer you bought it from who will send it on for recycling.

In the US the industry is in the midst of setting up its own recycling scheme. It was organized by People for Bikes and will be directly coordinated under the auspices of Call2Recycle. There will be a network of battery drop-off locations from the nation’s roughly 3,000 independent bike shops. Manufacturers and retailers can sign up here.

The batteries will be sent on to ‘processing partners’, four of which are domestic and two of which are foreign—one in South Korea and one in Belgium.

The consortium brands are funding the recycling service, which will be free to riders; of course, consumers will still have to pay for replacement batteries. There are also plans for a consumer-direct mail-in recycling option in the summer – EBR will keep you posted on its development.

There are already such ready-made recycling networks in mainland Europe and the UK is just beginning to establish such a network.

This guide to replacement electric bike batteries hopefully covered the basics of what is out there for you. It’s certainly just the tip of the iceberg though. If there is anything else that wasn’t covered here, let us know in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев below and we’ll update this guide with the info our readers are looking for!

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